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Table 3 The relationship between identified risk factors and treatment outcome

From: Diagnostic profiles and predictors of treatment outcome among children and adolescents attending a national psychiatric hospital in Botswana

Risk factors Outcome N* (%) df χ 2 p
Good Poor
Age group
 ≤10 32 (46.4) 37 (53.6) 1 6.382 0.012
 ≥11 77 (65.3) 41 (34.7)    
Gender
 Female 47 (68.1) 22 (31.9) 1 4.343 0.037
 Male 62 (52.5) 56 (47.5)    
No of sibling
 4 or less 86 (59.3) 59 (40.7) 1 0.133 0.715
 5 or more 19 (55.9) 15 (44.1)    
Order of birth
 First born 37 (50.7) 36 (49.3) 1 3.233 0.072
 Others 68 (64.2) 38 (35.2)    
Family type
 Same parents 38 (63.3) 22 (36.7) 1 1.371 0.242
 Different parents 60 (54.1) 51 (45.9)    
Care giver
 Both parents 18 (51.4) 17 (48.6) 1 0.622 0.430
 Single parent and others 80 (58.8) 56 (41.2)    
Past psychiatric history
 Absent 23 (71.9) 9 (28.1) 1 2.931 0.087
 Present 86 (55.5) 69 (44.5)    
Medical history
 Absent 102 (58.4) 73 (41.7) 1 0.000 0.997
 Present 7 (58.3) 5 (41.7)    
Family history
 Absent 67 (58.8) 47 (41.2) 1 0.016 0.901
 Present 37 (57.8) 27 (42.2)    
Perinatal complication
 Absent 87 (61.7) 54 (38.3) 1 4.937 0.026
 Present 9 (37.5) 15 (62.5)    
Early childhood illness
 Absence 71 (64.0) 40 (36.0) 1 4.218 0.040
 Presence 26 (47.3) 29 (52.7)    
Psychiatric co-morbidity
 Absent 60 (61.9) 37 (38.1) 1 1.055 0.304
 Present 49 (54.4) 41 (45.6)    
Physical co-morbidity
 Absent 99 (57.2) 74 (42.8) 1 1.075 0.300
 Present 10 (71.4) 4 (28.6)    
Mode of care
 In-patient 43 (93.5) 3 (6.3) 1 31.072 <0.01
 Out-patient 66 (46.8) 75 (53.2)    
Type of intervention
 Only Pharmacological 19 (51.4) 18 (48.6) 1 0.913 0.339
 Only Psychological or both 90 (60.0) 60 (40.0)    
Specialist (General psychiatrist) care
 Given 90 (63.8) 51 (36.2) 1 7.238 0.007
 Not given 19 (41.3) 27 (58.7)    
Prescribing pattern
 Monotherapy 50 (71.4) 20 (28.6) 1 7.197 0.007
 Poly-therapy 14 (43.8) 18 (56.2)    
  1. χ 2 Chi square, df   degree of freedom, p p value
  2. N* = N not equal to 238 due to missing data; only those with good (improved) and Poor treatment outcome (187) were analysed, those who defaulted after the first visit (51) were excluded from analysis. Significant p value in italics