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Table 3 Descriptive statistics on SFS scales (T2, child’s age 6 months), CBCL 1½ to 5 scales (T5, child’s age 3 years), EAS scales (T5), ADS (T5) and PSI-Scales (T5)

From: The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children’s psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample

  Intervention group, M (SD) Comparison group, M (SD) Comparison between groups (U test) Normal distribution (whole group) (K-S-Z)
SFS crying, whining and sleep problems T2 1.54 (.31) 1.56 (.30) ns ***
n = 143 n = 150
SFS feeding problems T2 1.22 (.29) 1.23 (.29) ns ***
n = 143 n = 150
CBCL internalizing problems T5 9.40 (6.30) 7.48 (6.11) * +
n = 77 n = 83
CBCL externalizing problems T5 12.66 (8.25) 11.56 (7.58) ns ns
n = 82 n = 87
EAS emotionality T5 2.63 (.85) 2.64 (.82) ns ***
n = 89 n = 92
EAS activity T5 4.14 (.64) 4.05 (.64) ns ***
n = 89 n = 92
EAS sociability T5 3.85 (.58) 3.81 (.56) ns ***
n = 89 n = 92
EAS shyness T5 2.20 (.70) 2.24 (.70) ns ***
n = 88 n = 92
ADS (mothers) T5 13.84 (9.69) 13.68 (10.17) ns ***
n = 89 n = 91
PSI parental distress T5 2.17 (.77) 2.26 (.86) ns ***
n = 92 n = 92
PSI dysfunctional parent–child interaction T5 1.58 (.50) 1.54 (.46) ns ***
n = 92 n = 92
PSI difficult child T5 2.05 (.71) 2.09 (.65) ns ***
n = 91 n = 92
  1. SFS questionnaires on crying, feeding and sleeping, CBCL child behavior checklist, EAS emotionality-activity-sociability-temperament survey, ADS Allgemeine Depressionsskala, PSI parental stress index, K-S-Z Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, U test Mann–Whitney-U test, ns not significant
  2. * p ≤ .05
  3. ** p ≤ .01
  4. *** p ≤ .001
  5. +p ≤ .10