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Table 4 Bivariate correlation coefficients (according to Pearson) for infant’s regulation problems (6 months, T2), children’s temperamental treats EAS (3 years, T5) and their psychopathological internalizing/externalizing symptoms CBCL 1½ to 5 (T5)

From: The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children’s psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample

  SFS C/S T2 SFS F T2 EAS emo T5 EAS act T5 EAS soc T5 EAS shy T5 CBCL intern T5 CBCL extern T5 ADS T5 PSI PD T5 PSI DI T5 PSI DC T5
SFS C/S T2 1            
N = 248
SFS F T2 .39*** 1           
N = 274 N = 248
EAS emo T5 .27*** .23** 1          
N = 175 N = 175 N = 181
EAS act T5 −.18* −.17* −.25** 1         
N = 175 N = 175 N = 181 N = 181
EAS soc T5 −.16* ns −.25*** .32*** 1        
N = 175   N = 181 N = 181
EAS shy T5 ns ns .162* −.338*** −.498*** 1       
   N = 180 N = 180 N = 180 N = 180
CBCL intern T5 .26*** .25*** .51*** −.19* −.31*** .30*** 1      
N = 156 N = 156 N = 154 N = 154 N = 154 N = 153 N = 160
CBCL extern T5 .32*** .28*** .55*** ns −.25** .20* .72*** 1     
N = 164 N = 164 N = 162   N = 162 N = 161 N = 153 N = 169
ADS T5 .37*** .22*** .43*** −.19* −.29*** ns .36*** .41*** 1    
N = 174 N = 174 N = 178 N = 178 N = 178   N = 154 N = 161  
PSI PD T5 .36*** .29*** .49*** −.26*** −.30*** .19* .39*** .42*** .71*** 1   
N = 178 N = 178 N = 178 N = 181 N = 181 N = 180 N = 156 N = 165 N = 180
PSI DI T5 .33*** .22*** .39*** −.16* −.20*** .21** .59*** .58*** .45*** .57*** 1  
N = 178 N = 178 N = 181 N = 181 N = 181 N = 180 N = 156 N = 165 N = 180 N = 184  
PSI DC T5 .39*** .31*** .68*** −.21** −.23*** .16* .57*** .66*** .55*** .66*** .69*** 1
N = 177 N = 177 N = 181 N = 181 N = 181 N = 180 N = 156 N = 164 N = 180 N = 183 N = 183  
  1. SFS, C/S crying/sleep, F feeding, EAS emo emotionality, act activity, soc sociability, shy shyness, CBCL intern internalizing, extern externalizing, PSI PD parental distress, DI dysfunctional parent–child interaction, DC difficult child, ns not significant
  2. * p ≤ .05
  3. **  p ≤ .01
  4. *** p ≤ .001