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Table 5 Linear regression analysis for investigating effects of infant regulatory problems at 6 month, maternal depression and distress and child’s temperament traits on its internalizing problems at 3 years (N = 123)

From: The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children’s psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample

Model summary R2 change R2 Corrected R2 F Beta
Block 1/SES, global risk ns .028 .003 ns  
Mother’s education      ns
Household income      ns
Global risk score (HBS)      ns
Block 2 ns .036 .003 ns  
Child’s gender      ns
Block 3 ns .053 .013 ns  
Group (IG/CG)      ns
Block 4/early regulatory problems SFS .143 .196 .148 4.046***  
Crying/sleeping problems at 6 months      .202*
Feeding problems at 6 months      .257**
Block 5/maternal depression ADS .090 .286 .237 5.766***  
ADS at 3 years      .337***
Block 6/PSI scales .130 .416 .359 7.264***  
Parental distress at 3 years      ns
Dysfunctional parent–child-interaction at 3 years      ns
Difficult child at 3 years      .467***
Block 7/child’s temperament EAS .047 .464 .389 6.223***  
Emotionality at 3 years      .221*
Activity at 3 years      ns
Sociability at 3 years      ns
Shyness at 3 years      .164 +
Block 8/interaction maternal depression X child’s temperament .003 .467 .381 5.453***  
ADS X Difficult child      ns
ADS X Emotionality      ns
  1. Significance of change in F for each signficant values are indicated in italics
  2. SFS questionnaires on crying, feeding and sleeping, CBCL child behavior checklist, EAS emotionality-activity-sociability-temperament survey, ADS Allgemeine Depressionsskala, PSI parental stress index, ns not significant
  3. *** p ≤ .001; ** p ≤ .01; * p ≤ .05; + p ≤ .10