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Table 6 Linear regression analysis for investigating effects of infant regulatory problems at 6 months, maternal depression and distress and child’s temperament traits on its externalizing problems at 3 years (N = 128)

From: The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children’s psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample

Model summary R2 change R2 Corrected R2 F Beta
Block 1/SES, global risk .066 .066 .043 2.92*  
Mother’s education      ns
Household income      ns
Global risk score (HBS)      .165 +
Block 2 .037 .103 .074 3.55**  
Child’s gender      −.196*
Block 3 .000 .103 .066 2.82*  
Group (IG/CG)      ns
Block 4 early regulatory problems SFS .158 .261 .218 6.098***  
Crying/sleep problems at 6 months      .287***
Feeding problems at 6 months      .190*
Block 5/maternal depression ADS .117 .378 .336 9.113***  
ADS at 3 years      .384***
Block 6/PSI scales .176 .554 .512 13.232***  
Parental distress at 3 years      ns
Dysfunctional parent–child-interaction at 3 years      ns
Difficult child at 3 years      .562***
Block 7/child’s temperament      
EAS .055 .609 .558 11.754***  
Emotionality at 3 years      .220*
Activity at 3 years      .199**
Sociability at 3 years      ns
Shyness at 3 years      .130 +
Block 8/maternal depression X child’s temperament .001 .610 .551 10.226***  
ADS X difficult child      ns
ADS X emotionality      ns
  1. Significance of change in F for each signficant values are indicated in italics
  2. SFS questionnaires on crying, feeding and sleeping, CBCL child behavior checklist, EAS emotionality-activity-sociability-temperament survey, ADS Allgemeine Depressionsskala, PSI parental stress index, ns not significant
  3. *** p ≤ .001; ** p ≤ .01; * p ≤ .05; + p ≤ .10