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Table 2 Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analysis of risk and protective factors for MHPs in preschoolers (N = 391), weighted data

From: Risk and protective factors for mental health problems in preschool-aged children: cross-sectional results of the BELLA preschool study

Predictors Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR 95% (CI) pa OR 95% (CI) p OR 95% (CI) p
Sociodemographic variables
 Gender
  Male Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  Female 0.64 (0.38–1.07) 0.089 0.67 (0.39–1.17) 0.159 0.65 (0.37–1.13) 0.122
 Age (years)
  3–4 Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  5–6 0.84 (0.50–1.40) 0.50 0.92 (0.53–1.59) 0.757 0.89 (0.51–1.56) 0.692
 Geographical region
  East Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  West 1.47 (0.72–2.98) 0.29 1.83 (0.84–3.95) 0.126 1.94 (0.88–4.31) 0.103
Risk factors
 Parental mental health
  Not impaired Ref.    Ref.   
  Impaired 2.76 (1.05–7.29) 0.040 2.06 (0.69–6.15) 0.193
 Child’s temperament
  Easy Ref.    Ref.   
  Difficult 4.83 (2.20–10.61) 0.000 3.85 (1.67–8.85) 0.002
 Parental SES
  High Ref.    Ref.   
  Middle 0.84 (0.42–1.71) 0.636 0.84 (0.41–1.72) 0.64
  Low 2.18 (1.09–4.36) 0.028 2.12 (1.04–4.31) 0.039
Protective factors
 Parental social support
  Low Ref.   
  Moderate 1.08 (0.42–2.82) 0.868
  High 0.98 (0.41–2.32) 0.961
 Parental competence
  Low Ref.   
  Moderate 0.42 (0.17–1.00) 0.051
  High 0.36 (0.14–0.90) 0.029
Model accuracy
 Nagelkerkes R2 0.02 0.15 0.17
 Hosmer–Lemeshow test χ2 1.09, p = 0.96 χ2 4.71, p = 0.79 χ2 7.73, p = 0.46
  1. Italics statistically significant
  2. MHPs mental health problems, OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, Ref. reference category, SES socioeconomic status
  3. ap value determined using bivariate logistic regression analyses