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Table 2 Odds ratios for the association of at least one record of stimulant treatment for ADHD with cultural and demographic factors

From: Identifying cross-cultural variations in psychostimulant use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using linked data

Risk factors Univariable Multivariablea
OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
HPNO/LPNO status
 HPNOb 1.00   1.00  
 LPNO 0.51 (0.45–0.59) <0.001 0.53 (0.46–0.61) <0.001
Sex
 Maleb 1.00   1.00  
 Female 0.32 (0.31–0.33) <0.001 0.31 (0.30–0.32) <0.001
Geographical remoteness
 Metropolitanb 1.00   1.00  
 Rural 0.81 (0.78–0.85) <0.001 0.80 (0.77–0.84) <0.001
 Remote 0.44 (0.39–0.50) <0.001 0.43 (0.38–0.48) <0.001
Social disadvantage
 Least disadvantagedb 1.00   1.00  
 Less disadvantaged 1.08 (1.01–1.15) <0.01 1.02 (0.96–1.10) 0.52
 Little disadvantaged 0.98 (0.91–1.05) 0.60 0.97 (0.90–1.04) 0.33
 More disadvantaged 1.05 (0.96–1.14) 0.30 1.02 (0.94–1.12) 0.60
 Most disadvantaged 0.99 (0.89–1.10) 0.78 0.96 (0.86–1.06) 0.41
  1. aAll parameters were included in this model so as to adjust each result for potential confounding by other covariates
  2. b Reference category