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Table 2 Hazard ratios for self-harm according to indicators of adolescent mental and physical health in the study population (crude and adjusted models)

From: Adolescent health and subsequent risk of self-harm hospitalisation: a 15-year follow-up of the Young-HUNT cohort

  No. Crudeb Adjustedc
SHa HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Gender
 Male 24 1.00 1.00
 Female 60 2.55 (1.59–4.10) 2.50 (1.56–4.01)
Parental socioeconomic status
 Primary education 8 1.00 1.00
 Secondary education 13 0.47 (0.20–1.14) 0.43 (0.18–1.05)
 Tertiary education 63 0.83 (0.40–1.73) 0.73 (0.35–1.53)
Cohabitation status
 Parents live together 51 1.00 1.00
 Parents separated/divorced 33 2.59 (1.67–4.01) 2.54 (1.63–3.94)
Anxiety/depression (SCL-5)
 SCL-5 mean score 83 2.98 (2.22–4.00) 2.51 (1.84–3.43)
 Non-caseness symptoms anxiety/depression 57 1.00 1.00
 Caseness symptoms anxiety/depression 26 4.46 (2.80–7.10) 3.52 (2.18–5.67)
(SCL-5 single items)
 Not felt constantly afraid and anxious 72 1.00 1.00
 Felt constantly afraid and anxious 11 5.78 (3.06–10.90) 4.21 (2.21–8.02)
 Not felt tense or uneasy 63 1.00 1.00
 Felt tense or uneasy 19 5.95 (3.56–9.95) 4.75 (2.82–8.01)
 Not felt hopelessness when thinking of the future 64 1.00 1.00
 Felt hopelessness when thinking of the future 19 2.88 (1.73–4.81) 2.49 (1.49–4.18)
 Not felt dejected or sad 66 1.00 1.00
 Felt dejected or sad 17 3.21 (1.88–5.47) 2.46 (1.43–4.25)
 Not worried too much about various things 61 1.00 1.00
 Worried too much about various things 22 3.01 (1.85–4.89) 2.44 (1.49–4.00)
Loneliness
 Sometimes/less seldom 68 1.00 1.00
 Very often/often 16 3.99 (2.32–6.89) 3.31 (1.91–5.73)
Bullied at school
 Never/sometimes 75 1.00 1.00
 Very often/often 5 3.39 (1.37–8.38) 3.30 (1.33–8.16)
Body mass index (kg/m2)d
 Underweight (BMI <18.5) 5 1.47 (0.59–3.67) 1.46 (0.59–3.65)
 Normal-weight (BMI 18.5–25) 56 1.00 1.00
 Overweight (BMI 25–30) 11 1.06 (0.56–2.03) 0.99 (0.52–1.89)
 Obesity (BMI >30) 7 3.15 (1.44–6.92) 3.06 (1.39–6.73)
Epilepsy
 No 75 1.00 1.00
 Yes 3 3.82 (1.21–12.13) 3.97 (1.25–12.63)
Migraine
 No 72 1.00 1.00
 Yes 7 2.72 (1.25–5.91) 2.34 (1.08–5.10)
Asthma
 No 73 1.00 1.00
 Yes 11 1.13 (0.60–2.12) 1.09 (0.58–2.05)
Allergy
 No 62 1.00 1.00
 Yes 22 0.73 (0.45–1.19) 0.71 (0.43–1.15)
Skin rash
 No 64 1.00 1.00
 Yes 20 1.21 (0.73–1.99) 1.04 (0.63–1.73)
Stomach pain
 Seldom/never 47 1.00 1.00
 Sometimes/often 33 2.73 (1.75–4.26) 2.23 (1.42–3.52)
Headache
 Seldom/never 29 1.00 1.00
 Sometimes/often 52 2.68 (1.70–4.22) 2.17 (1.36–3.46)
Smoking
 Non-smoker 30 1.00 1.00
 Smoker (occasionally/daily) 34 2.01 (1.23–3.29) 1.82 (1.11–2.98)
Alcohol
 Been drunk ≤10 times 45 1.00 1.00
 Been drunk >10 times 28 1.30 (0.80–2.10) 1.23 (0.76–2.00)
  1. SH self-harm, HR hazard ratio, SCL-5 Hopkins Symptom Checklist, 5-item version
  2. aTotal number of self-harm patients vary due to complete case analyses with varying number of missing observations
  3. bAdjusted for age (as time axis)
  4. cAdjusted for age (as time axis), gender, cohabitation situation and socioeconomic status/parental education level at baseline
  5. dAge-and-gender specific body mass index categories based on international cut-off values