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Table 1 Variable definitions and codes

From: Infants and the decision to provide ongoing child welfare services

Variable Description Measurement
Outcome Workers were asked if they planned to keep the case open to provide ongoing services to the family at the conclusion of the investigation Dichotomous variable: 1 Transfer to ongoing child welfare services 0 Case closure
 Child characteristics   
  Child sex Worker identified the sex of the investigated child Dichotomous variable: 1 Male 0 Female
  Child functioning Workers were asked to note up to eighteen child functioning concerns. Six of eighteen dichotomous child functioning variables were relevant to infants: failure to meet developmental milestones, attachment issues, intellectual/developmental disability, FAS/FAE, positive toxicology at birth, and physical disability. This analysis noted whether the worker examined at least one of six of these relevant concerns 1 At least one child functioning concern noted (suspected or confirmed) 0 No child functioning concerns noted
  Child ethnicity Workers were asked to indicate the ethnicity of the child (Black, Latin American, Arab, Aboriginal, Asian). Ethno-racial categories developed by Statistics Canada Dichotomous variable: 1 Ethnic minority 0 White
 Caregiver Characteristics
  Primary caregiver age Workers were asked to indicate the age category of the primary caregiver. Categorical variable: 1 18 years and under 2 19–21 years 3 22–30 years 4 31–40 years 5 41 years and up
  Primary caregiver risk factors Workers could note up to nine risk factors for the primary caregiver. Concerns were: alcohol abuse, drug/solvent abuse, cognitive impairment, mental health issues, physical health issues, few social supports, victim of domestic violence, perpetrator of domestic violence, and history of foster care/group home Nine dichotomous variables: 1 Suspected or confirmed caregiver risk factors 0 No caregiver risk factors noted
  Primary income of caregiver Workers were asked to indicate the primary source of the primary caregiver’s income Categorical variable: 1 Full time 2 Part-time/seasonal 3 Other benefits/unemployment 4 No income
  No second caregiver in the home Workers were asked to describe up to two caregivers in the home. If there was only one caregiver described, it was assumed there was no second caregiver in the home Dichotomous variable: 1 No second caregiver in home 0 Second caregiver in home
  Household hazards Workers were asked to note if the following hazards were present in the home at the time of the investigation: accessible weapons, accessible drugs, production/trafficking of drugs, chemicals/solvents, used in drug production, other home injury hazards, and other home health hazards Dichotomous variable: 1 At least one household hazard 0 No household hazard
  Household regularly runs out of money for basic necessities Workers were asked to note if the household regularly runs out of money for basic necessities including food, shelter and clothing Dichotomous variable: 1 Family regularly ran out of money 0 Family did not regularly run out of money
  Number of moves Workers were asked to note the number of moves the household had in the past 6 months 2 2 or more moves 1 One move 0 None
 Case characteristics
  Previous openings Worker indicated if there were one or more previous child protection openings 1 One or more previous openings 0 No previous openings
  Type of investigation Workers were asked to indicate if the investigation was conducted for a specific maltreatment incident, or if it was to assess a risk of maltreatment only 1 Maltreatment investigation 2 Risk-only investigation