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Table 2 Clinical profile of maltreatment-related investigations involving infants in Ontario in 2013

From: Infants and the decision to provide ongoing child welfare services

Variable Estimate % % Transferred to ongoing services
Child characteristics
 Child sex
  Female 3887 49.3 45.9
  Male 3999 50.7 34.1
 Child ethnicity
  Ethnic minority 2396 30.9 29.5
  White 5355 69.1 43.9
 Child functioning concerns
  Attachment issues 0.8 100
  Intellectual/developmental disability 0.6 73.9
  Failure to meet developmental milestones 162 2.1 84.7
  FAS/FAE 0.8 100
  Positive toxicology at birth 305 3.9 87.5
  Physical disability 124 1.6 50.0
  At least one child functioning concern 614 7.8 78.5
Primary caregiver characteristics
 Primary caregiver age
  18 years and under 851 10.8 45.1
  19–21 years 1616 20.5 59.7
  22–30 years 3347 42.5 35.9
  31–40 years 1952 24.8 28.1
  41 years and up 112 1.4 14.3
 Primary caregiver risk factors
  Alcohol abuse 842 10.6 77.1
  Drug/solvent use 1490 18.8 76.6
  Cognitive impairment 699 8.8 84.1
  Mental health issues 2459 31.1 68.2
  Physical health issues 466 5.9 68.2
  Few social supports 2597 32.8 65.2
  Victim of intimate partner violence (IPV) 2978 37.6 51.5
  Perpetrator of domestic violence 854 10.8 51.3
  History of foster care 1031 13.0 58.8
  At least one caregiver risk factor 5883 74.3 50.3
 Household characteristics
  No second caregiver in home 2403 30.4 54.1
 Primary income
  Full-time 571 7.7 23.3
  Part-time/seasonal 375 5.1 23.2
  Other benefits/unemployment 5471 73.9 42.7
  No income 1498 13.3 49.8
At least one household hazard 664 8.8 72.7
Household regularly runs out of money 1030 15.7 67.2
 Number of moves
  No moves 3261 50.0 26.4
  One move 2121 32.5 42.0
  Two or more moves 1138 17.4 80.9
Maltreatment characteristics
 Types of maltreatment-related investigation
  Physical abuse 163 2.1 19.0
  Sexual abuse 1.2 61.3
  Neglect 1618 20.4 43.1
  Emotional maltreatment 424 5.4 41.5
  Exposure to IPV 2467 31.2 24.2
  Risk 3150 39.8 50.6
 Case characteristics and short-term service outcomes
  Opened for ongoing services 3151 39.8
  At least one previous case opening (family-level) 3445 43.6 51.1
  Reopened within 12-month period 2243 65.1 51.9
  Infant previously investigated for alleged maltreatment 1339 16.9 44.6
  At least one referral for specialized services 4530 57.2 57.1
  Child welfare court 693 8.8 98.1
  Placement 680 8.6 89.0
  1. Estimated number of provincial investigations, n = 7915
  2. – = not reportable because n < 100