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Table 3 Association of LDES scores with breastfeeding

From: Breastfeeding is associated with enhanced learning abilities in school-aged children

LDES score, mean (SD) Ever-breastfed participants (N = 516) Never-breastfed participants (N = 352) Model 1 Model 2a Model 3b Effect size (Model 3)
  Β (95% CI) p value Β (95% CI) p value Β (95% CI) p value
LDES
 Listening 11.4 (2.2) 11.2 (2.5) 0.28 (−0.04, 0.60) 0.085 0.35 (−0.71, 0.57) 0.126 0.30 (−0.04, 0.63) 0.080 0.056
 Thinking 11.4 (1.8) 11.2 (2.1) 0.23 (−0.04, 0.50) 0.089 0.19 (−0.70, 0.50) 0.150 0.19 (−0.08, 0.46) 0.165 0.041
 Speaking 11.7 (2.0) 11.2 (2.3) 0.49 (0.21, 0.78) 0.001 0.50 (0.21, 0.79) 0.001 0.49 (0.20, 0.79) 0.001 0.058
 Reading 11.3 (2.1) 10.8 (2.4) 0.44 (0.14, 0.74) 0.005 0.38 (0.67, 0.99) 0.011 0.37 (0.07, 0.67) 0.015 0.076
 Writing 11.3 (2.0) 10.9 (2.4) 0.43 (0.14, 0.73) 0.004 0.47 (0.08, 0.65) 0.012 0.34 (0.05, 0.63) 0.022 0.101
 Spelling 10.9 (2.3) 10.4 (2.8) 0.52 (0.18, 0.86) 0.003 0.46 (0.13, 0.78) 0.006 0.42 (0.09, 0.76) 0.013 0.117
 Mathematical calculation 11.8 (1.5) 11.4 (2.1) 0.37 (0.12, 0.61) 0.003 0.26 (0.03, 0.50) 0.028 0.27 (0.03, 0.51) 0.026 0.048
 Learning quotient 108.8 (9.0) 105.6 (11.4) 2.23 (0.86, 3.59) 0.001 1.97 (0.65, 3.30) 0.004 1.95 (0.59, 3.31) 0.005 0.092
  1. LDES Learning disability evaluation scale, SD standard deviation
  2. a Covariates include age, gender, area of residence, annual family income, years of maternal education, and age of mother at birth
  3. b Covariates include age, gender, area of residence, annual family income, years of maternal education, age of mother at birth, and maternal IQ