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Table 2 Health related quality of life in adolescents across levels of anxiety symptoms

From: Quality of life in anxious adolescents

Total HRQoL Physical HRQoL Emotional HRQoL Self-esteem HRQoL Family HRQoL Friends HRQoL School HRQoL
  M/SD M/SD M/SD M/SD M/SD M/SD M/SD
Low Med High Low Med High Low Med High Low Med High Low Med High Low Med High Low Med High
OCD 74.2 64.2 58.5 75.6 64.2 55.5 80.8 65.4 56.4 65.5 54.2 48.1 84.1 76.7 69.9 77.6 67.9 62.9 61.4 56.7 58.0
9.9 10.8 10.7 14.8 15.7 18.2 12.9 17.3 15.8 18.2 18.8 18.1 13.7 15.2 16.9 13.6 15.4 15.3 9.4 8.4 8.4
Social 74.9 65.9 59.5 76.4 65.8 58.5 81.8 69.6 58.1 66.5 55.0 48.0 84.4 78.3 73.7 78.6 68.9 62.1 61.8 57.4 56.0
9.5 9.6 11.4 14.5 15.1 17.5 12.0 14.5 17.9 17.9 17.8 18.1 13.6 14.7 16.3 12.9 15.4 15.6 9.2 8.2 9.1
Panic/Agora 75.7 66.2 58.1 77.6 64.8 55.1 82.6 69.9 56.9 67.3 56.6 44.8 85.1 77.5 71.9 78.8 69.3 64.6 61.9 58.6 55.8
9.1 9.5 10.4 13.8 14.3 16.3 11.4 14.9 16.4 17.5 16.9 17.6 12.9 15.2 17.7 13.0 14.3 15.9 9.2 8.8 8.6
Separation 74.0 65.8 60.1 75.5 64.8 57.2 80.4 69.2 57.1 65.1 56.9 51.4 83.7 77.7 75.6 77.6 68.8 63.4 61.4 57.4 56.4
10.2 10.7 11.6 15.0 16.5 16.8 13.3 17.2 16.2 18.5 17.9 20.3 14.1 14.9 15.7 13.6 15.8 16.2 9.3 8.5 9.1
Physical/Inj 74.8 68.3 65.6 76.7 66.9 64.1 81.0 72.7 69.9 65.8 59.7 55.5 84.4 79.0 77.9 77.9 72.6 69.7 61.9 59.1 56.4
9.9 10.5 12.6 14.7 15.2 18.5 13.2 15.3 18.9 18.3 18.5 19.8 13.3 15.6 17.6 13.8 14.1 16.0 9.2 8.9 9.1
GAD 76.2 69.4 61.1 78.4 68.8 58.8 83.4 75.3 60.6 68.6 57.6 48.8 85.1 81.0 74.9 79.2 73.7 66.1 62 59.5 57.3
8.9 8.9 10.7 13.6 13.7 16.2 10.9 12.6 16.5 17.3 16.6 17.3 12.9 13.7 14.4 13.2 13.5 14.6 9.2 9.4 8.9
Overall anxiety 75.4 62.8 56.4 77.1 61.8 52.9 82.5 66.8 52.4 66.8 52.4 44.5 84.8 75.7 82.9 78.8 66.0 60.6 61.8 56.9 56.2
9.1 9.2 10.5 13.9 14.3 16.5 11.1 17.5 15.8 17.5 17.8 17.2 13.3 14.8 14.4 12.8 14.7 15.3 9.2 8.7 8.9
Effect size   1.37 1.93   1.08 1.59   1.07 2.20   0.82 1.29   0.65 0.14   0.93 1.29   0.54 0.62
ANOVA F(21,630) = 334.6* F(21,654) = 223.4* F(21,653) = 471.7* F(21,654) = 125.3* F(21,651) = 76.1* F(21,636) = 157.1* F(21,652) = 36.9*
  1. The Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents Revised Version (KINDL-R) [19] was used to measure health related quality of life (HRQoL). The Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale, child version, was used to measure anxiety symptoms in various anxiety domains [obsessive compulsive (OCD), social phobia, panic/agoraphobia, separation anxiety, physical injury fears, generalised anxiety (GAD), and the composite overall anxiety]. Australian gender-specific norms used to categorize adolescents as low, medium, or high in anxiety-symptom level at each domain of anxiety. The differences in overall HRQoL between adolescents with low and medium anxiety levels, and between low and high anxiety levels are reported in Cohen’s d. * p < 0.005