Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examining effects of sociodemographic variables, reported negative life events, and levels of anxiety on quality of life in a community sample of adolescents (N = 1719)

From: Quality of life in anxious adolescents

Predictor variables B SE B β R2 ΔF
Step 1 Background and negative life events     0.23 * 67.9 *
Gender      
 Female Ref.     
 Male 33.3 2.9 0.26*   
Age (12–17) −9.9 1.7 −0.13*   
Ethnicity      
 Norwegian Ref.     
 Western immigrant 2.2 9.3 0.01   
 Non-Western immigrant 11.7 10.7 0.02   
Perceived family economy      
 Like most families Ref.     
 Better than most families 5.1 3.8 0.03   
 Lower than most families −49.3 6.7 −0.16*   
Reported negative life events −39.2 2.9 −0.29*   
Step 2; Medium anxiety level (analysis 1)     0.31 * 52.9 *
Gender      
 Female Ref.     
 Male 28.1 5.6 0.22*   
Age (12–17) −9.9 1.6 −0.13*   
Ethnicity      
 Norwegian Ref.     
 Western immigrant −1.5 8.8 0.00   
 Non-Western immigrant 12.2 10.2 0.03   
Perceived family economy      
 Like most families Ref.     
 Better than most families 6.8 3.6 0.04   
 Lower than most families −44.9 6.4 −0.15*   
Reported negative life events −32.8 2.9 −0.25*   
Obsessive compulsive, medium anxiety symptoms −25.7 5.6 −0.09*   
Social phobia, medium anxiety symptoms −22.7 4.9 −0.10*   
Panic/agora fear, medium anxiety symptoms −20.7 4.3 −0.10*   
Separation anxiety, medium anxiety symptoms −24.8 5.3 −0.10*   
Physical injury fear, medium anxiety symptoms −15.9 3.7 −0.09*   
Generalised anxiety, medium anxiety symptoms −5.6 4.2 −0.03   
Step 2; High anxiety level (analysis 2)     0.39 * 80.2 *
Gender      
 Female Ref.     
 Male 18.9 2.8 0.15*   
Age (12–17) −7.6 1.5 −0.10*   
Ethnicity      
 Norwegian Ref.     
 Western immigrant −0.5 8.3 0.00   
 Non-Western immigrant 14.6 9.6 0.03   
Perceived family economy      
 Like most families Ref.     
 Better than most families 8.1 3.3 0.05*   
 Lower than most families −33.6 6.0 −0.11*   
Reported negative life events −25.9 2.7 −0.19*   
Obsessive compulsive, high anxiety symptoms −24.7 6.6 −0.08*   
Social phobia, high anxiety symptoms −33.8 5.3 −0.14*   
Panic/agora fear, high anxiety symptoms −35.4 5.4 −0.16*   
Separation anxiety, high anxiety symptoms −9.9 6.9 −0.03   
Physical injury fear, high anxiety symptoms −11.4 4.6 −0.05*   
Generalised anxiety, high anxiety symptoms −30.4 4.5 −0.17*   
  1. The Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents Revised Version (KINDL-R) [19] was used to measure quality of life (HRQoL). The Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale was used to measure anxiety symptoms in various anxiety domains (obsessive compulsive, social phobia, panic/agoraphobia, separation anxiety, physical injury fears, and generalised anxiety. Australian gender-specific norms used to categorize adolescents as low, medium, or high in anxiety-symptom level at each domain of anxiety. The low-anxiety group in the corresponding anxiety domain was used as the reference group in Step 2 and 3. Ref reference category, β beta estimate; * p < 0.005