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Table 3 Association between covariates and mental health among adolescents

From: Dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress among adolescents in Korea

  Well-being outcomes Mental distress outcomes
Perceived health Perceived happiness Sleep satisfaction Perceived stress Depression
Bad Good p-value Unhappy Happy p-value Insufficient Sufficient p-value Less Much p-value No Yes p-value
Sex (boys) 43.2 55.7 < .0001 47.2 54.7 < .0001 47.7 64.8 < .0001 57.9 42.5 < .0001 55.4 42.7 < .0001
Age (years), mean (SD) 15.4 (0.02) 15.0 (0.02) < .0001 15.4 (0.02) 15.0 (0.02) < .0001 15.3 (0.02) 15.0 (0.03) < .0001 15.0 (0.02) 15.3 (0.02) < .0001 15.0 (0.02) 15.3 (0.02) < .0001
BMI
 Normal weight 71.4 79.2 < .0001 76.3 77.4 0.008 77.3 76.2 0.0239 77.8 75.6 < .0001 77.0 77.1 0.3670
 Thinness 7.3 5.1   5.8 5.6   5.6 6.0   5.8 5.5   5.8 5.5  
 Overweight/obesity 21.3 15.7   18.0 17.0   17.1 17.9   16.4 18.8   17.2 17.5  
School level
 High school 62.3 51.6 < .0001 62.4 50.7 < .0001 60.0 39.2 < .0001 51.9 59.2 < .0001 52.9 59.5 < .0001
 Middle school 37.7 48.4   37.6 49.3   40.0 60.8   48.1 40.8   47.1 40.5  
Types of school
 Mixed 60.8 62.5 < .0001 61.1 62.5 < .0001 60.6 66.1 < .0001 62.6 61.0 < .0001 61.8 62.6 < .0001
 Boys only 16.8 20.3   18.0 19.9   18.5 21.4   21.3 15.9   20.7 15.2  
 Girls only 22.4 17.2   21.0 17.6   20.9 12.5   16.0 23.2   17.5 22.1  
Paternal education level
 High school or less 39.8 35.3 < .0001 39.4 35.2 < .0001 37.4 34.1 < .0001 35.7 37.9 < .0001 36.4 37.1 0.1642
 College or higher 60.2 64.7   60.6 64.8   62.6 65.9   64.3 62.1   63.6 62.9  
Maternal education level
 High school or less 47.9 42.5 0.0009 47.4 42.4 < .0001 45.3 40.3 < .0001 42.9 45.8 < .0001 44.0 44.2 0.7602
 College or higher 52.1 57.5   52.6 57.6   54.7 59.7   57.1 54.2   56.0 55.8  
Socio-economic status
 High/upper middle 27.3 41.0 < .0001 26.4 42.6 < .0001 34.6 44.5 < .0001 39.1 33.8 < .0001 38.0 34.6 < .0001
 Middle 50.1 46.1   50.4 45.7   48.5 43.7   48.2 45.7   48.1 44.7  
 Lower middle/Low 22.6 12.8   23.2 11.7   16.9 11.8   12.7 20.5   13.8 20.8  
Place of residence
 Rural area 5.4 6.0 0.0016 5.6 6.0 0.006 5.7 6.3 0.2566 5.7 6.1 0.1621 38.0 34.6 < .0001
 Large city 42.0 43.8   42.2 43.9   43.3 43.3   43.8 42.6   48.1 44.7  
 Medium-sized city 52.6 50.1   52.2 50.1   51.0 50.4   50.5 51.3   13.8 20.8  
Physical activity (≥ 60 min)
 No 42.9 34.3 < .0001 41.0 34.7 < .0001 37.6 34.3 < .0001 35.8 38.4 < .0001 37.2 35.6 0.0011
 1–2/week 34.6 30.9   32.7 31.6   32.8 29.6   31.2 33.3   31.6 33.1  
 3+/week 22.5 34.7   26.4 33.7   29.6 36.0   33.1 28.3   31.3 31.3  
 Ever smoking (yes) 15.7 14.5 0.0013 17.7 13.4 < .0001 15.9 11.9 < .0001 13.9 16.4 < .0001 12.9 20.4 < .0001
 Ever alcohol drinking (yes) 42.0 37.5 < .0001 44.4 36.0 < .0001 41.7 30.4 < .0001 36.2 43.1 < .0001 35.5 48.3 < .0001
  1. All values are presented as weighted mean ± SD or weighted % as appropriate