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Table 5 Adjusted odds ratios of well-being and mental distress indicators in relation to dietary behaviours among adolescents

From: Dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress among adolescents in Korea

  Well-being outcomes Mental distress outcomes
Perceived health (healthy) Perceived happiness (happy) Sleep satisfaction (sufficient) Perceived stress (much) Depression (yes)
aOR1) (95% CI) aOR1) (95% CI) aOR2) (95% CI) aOR2) (95% CI) aOR3) (95% CI)
Dietary behaviors
 Breakfast
  0 day 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  1 day 0.95 (0.85–1.05) 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 0.96 (0.85–1.09) 0.91 (0.83–1.00) 0.97 (0.89–1.06)
  2 days 1.04 (0.95–1.14) 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 0.99 (0.89–1.11) 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 1.02 (0.94–1.10)
  3 days 1.06 (0.97–1.17) 1.02 (0.94–1.11) 1.12 (1.01–1.25) 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.88 (0.82–0.96)
  4 days 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 1.22 (1.11–1.34) 0.99 (0.88–1.11) 0.83 (0.76–0.92) 0.94 (0.87–1.02)
  5 days 1.01 (0.94–1.10) 1.16 (1.07–1.25) 0.99 (0.91–1.09) 0.85 (0.79–0.91) 0.89 (0.83–0.96)
  6 days 1.22 (1.12–1.34) 1.30 (1.19–1.42) 1.13 (1.03–1.23) 0.76 (0.70–0.82) 0.86 (0.79–0.93)
  7 days 1.34 (1.25–1.43) 1.42 (1.34–1.51) 1.45 (1.35–1.56) 0.74 (0.70–0.78) 0.76 (0.72–0.81)
 Soft drinks
  I did not drink 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  1–2 times/week 1.04 (0.99–1.09) 1.08 (1.03–1.13) 0.90 (0.86–0.96) 0.97 (0.93–1.02) 1.05 (1.00–1.09)
  3–4 times/week 0.90 (0.84–0.96) 0.95 (0.89–1.01) 0.77 (0.72–0.82) 1.07 (1.01–1.14) 1.24 (1.17–1.31)
  5–6 times/week 0.83 (0.74–0.92) 0.82 (0.74–0.91) 0.70 (0.62–0.80) 1.39 (1.25–1.54) 1.44 (1.31–1.58)
  Once/day 0.73 (0.63–0.84) 0.76 (0.66–0.88) 0.77 (0.65–0.91) 1.47 (1.28–1.70) 1.57 (1.38–1.79)
  Twice/day 0.63 (0.50–0.79) 0.77 (0.62–0.94) 0.58 (0.44–0.77) 1.41 (1.12–1.78) 1.59 (1.34–1.89)
  3+ times/day 0.63 (0.50–0.78) 0.67 (0.53–0.84) 0.80 (0.63–1.01) 1.75 (1.41–2.18) 2.07 (1.75–2.44)
 Highly caffeinated drink
  I did not drink 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  1–2 times/week 0.77 (0.72–0.83) 0.73 (0.69–0.78) 0.68 (0.63–0.73) 1.50 (1.42–1.60) 1.50 (1.42–1.59)
  3–4 times/week 0.65 (0.57–0.74) 0.55 (0.49–0.62) 0.56 (0.48–0.66) 2.22 (1.96–2.52) 1.91 (1.71–2.13)
  5–6 times/week 0.58 (0.46–0.73) 0.55 (0.44–0.68) 0.70 (0.53–0.92) 1.96 (1.58–2.44) 2.66 (2.19–3.23)
  Once/day 0.44 (0.33–0.58) 0.43 (0.34–0.55) 0.40 (0.27–0.58) 3.43 (2.67–4.41) 2.62 (2.15–3.20)
  Twice/day 0.30 (0.19–0.45) 0.42 (0.26–0.69) 0.49 (0.26–0.96) 3.49 (2.28–5.34) 3.57 (2.38–5.34)
  3+ times/day 0.39 (0.25–0.62) 0.43 (0.28–0.68) 0.77 (0.45–1.32) 3.01 (1.85–4.89) 3.25 (2.24–4.71)
 Sweetened drinks
  I did not drink 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  1–2 times/week 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 1.06 (1.00–1.12) 0.87 (0.82–0.93) 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 1.12 (1.06–1.18)
  3–4 times/week 0.92 (0.86–0.99) 0.99 (0.93–1.06) 0.77 (0.71–0.83) 1.14 (1.07–1.21) 1.34 (1.26–1.41)
  5–6 times/week 0.80 (0.73–0.87) 0.95 (0.87–1.03) 0.63 (0.57–0.71) 1.30 (1.21–1.41) 1.45 (1.35–1.57)
  Once/day 0.77 (0.69–0.86) 0.94 (0.84–1.05) 0.66 (0.59–0.75) 1.47 (1.33–1.62) 1.58 (1.44–1.73)
  Twice/day 0.65 (0.54–0.78) 0.81 (0.69–0.94) 0.57 (0.47–0.69) 1.82 (1.55–2.14) 2.04 (1.76–2.37)
  3+ times/day 0.58 (0.48–0.70) 0.68 (0.57–0.82) 0.82 (0.66–1.01) 2.08 (1.73–2.50) 1.97 (1.67–2.32)
 Fast foods
  I did not eat 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
1–2 times/week 0.97 (0.92–1.02) 1.05 (1.01–1.11) 0.85 (0.81–0.90) 1.01 (0.96–1.05) 1.08 (1.04–1.13)
  3–4 times/week 0.80 (0.75–0.86) 0.89 (0.83–0.95) 0.66 (0.62–0.72) 1.24 (1.16–1.32) 1.43 (1.35–1.52)
  5–6 times/week 0.69 (0.59–0.81) 0.71 (0.61–0.82) 0.70 (0.59–0.84) 1.49 (1.28–1.72) 1.80 (1.58–2.05)
  Once/day 0.50 (0.40–0.63) 0.52 (0.42–0.66) 0.78 (0.58–1.04) 2.03 (1.63–2.54) 2.30 (1.90–2.78)
  Twice/day 0.41 (0.25–0.69) 0.50 (0.31–0.82) 0.58 (0.33–1.02) 2.14 (1.35–3.39) 2.36 (1.66–3.37)
  3+ times/day 1.32 (0.67–2.59) 0.73 (0.42–1.25) 0.61 (0.32–1.19) 2.09 (1.24–3.52) 3.57 (2.62–4.87)
 Fruits (excluding fruit juices)
  I did not eat 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  1–2 times/week 1.32 (1.21–1.43) 1.45 (1.34–1.57) 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 0.77 (0.72–0.83) 0.88 (0.83–0.94)
  3–4 times/week 1.58 (1.46–1.72) 1.76 (1.62–1.90) 1.23 (1.12–1.35) 0.67 (0.62–0.72) 0.83 (0.77–0.88)
  5–6 times/week 1.61 (1.46–1.77) 1.77 (1.62–1.94) 1.29 (1.17–1.42) 0.68 (0.63–0.74) 0.83 (0.77–0.90)
  Once/day 1.80 (1.64–1.98) 2.04 (1.86–2.23) 1.42 (1.29–1.58) 0.66 (0.61–0.71) 0.86 (0.79–0.92)
  Twice/day 1.72 (1.54–1.93) 2.18 (1.95–2.44) 1.56 (1.39–1.75) 0.69 (0.62–0.76) 0.86 (0.78–0.94)
  3+ times/day 1.81 (1.58–2.07) 1.89 (1.67–2.14) 1.68 (1.49–1.90) 0.70 (0.63–0.78) 1.05 (0.95–1.17)
 Vegetable (excluding Kimchi)
  I did not eat 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  1–2 times/week 1.35 (1.21–1.51) 1.26 (1.12–1.40) 1.01 (0.88–1.15) 0.69 (0.62–0.77) 0.90 (0.82–1.00)
  3–4 times/week 1.68 (1.51–1.87) 1.49 (1.34–1.65) 1.17 (1.03–1.32) 0.63 (0.57–0.70) 0.79 (0.72–0.87)
  5–6 times/week 1.90 (1.69–2.14) 1.61 (1.44–1.80) 1.28 (1.12–1.46) 0.62 (0.56–0.70) 0.80 (0.72–0.88)
  Once/day 1.93 (1.73–2.16) 1.61 (1.44–1.81) 1.27 (1.11–1.45) 0.62 (0.55–0.69) 0.84 (0.76–0.93)
  Twice/day 2.22 (1.97–2.49) 1.87 (1.67–2.10) 1.35 (1.18–1.53) 0.61 (0.55–0.68) 0.78 (0.70–0.86)
  3+ times/day 2.21 (1.97–2.48) 1.96 (1.75–2.19) 1.56 (1.37–1.77) 0.66 (0.59–0.74) 0.83 (0.75–0.92)
 Milk
  I did not drink 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  1–2 times/week 1.15 (1.08–1.24) 1.15 (1.08–1.22) 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 0.84 (0.79–0.89) 0.93 (0.88–0.98)
  3–4 times/week 1.28 (1.20–1.36) 1.28 (1.20–1.36) 1.09 (1.01–1.18) 0.82 (0.77–0.87) 0.93 (0.88–0.99)
  5–6 times/week 1.33 (1.23–1.44) 1.32 (1.23–1.41) 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 0.80 (0.75–0.86) 0.89 (0.84–0.95)
  Once/day 1.50 (1.39–1.61) 1.41 (1.32–1.51) 1.18 (1.09–1.28) 0.77 (0.72–0.82) 0.90 (0.85–0.96)
  Twice/day 1.48 (1.33–1.64) 1.36 (1.22–1.51) 1.21 (1.10–1.34) 0.83 (0.76–0.91) 1.02 (0.94–1.11)
  3+ times/day 1.54 (1.36–1.74) 1.37 (1.22–1.53) 1.46 (1.31–1.63) 0.90 (0.82–1.00) 1.06 (0.96–1.17)