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Table 2 Selected cohort and within-pairs estimates between mpas and categorical diagnoses/dimensional variables (Autistic Traits, IQ)

From: Minor physical anomalies in neurodevelopmental disorders: a twin study

Categorical diagnoses Cohort estimate Within-pairs conditional estimate MZ only within-pair conditional estimate
β OR 95% CI (OR) p value β OR 95% CI (OR) p value β OR 95% CI (OR) p value
ASD and MPAs
 No adjustments .25 1.29 1.00–1.66 .047 .25 1.28 .60–2.75 .529 .35 1.42 0.63–3.19 .398
 Adjusted for IQ .23 1.26 .98–1.61 .073 .16 1.18 .55–2.54 .673 .55 1.73 .47–6.45 .413
 Adjusted for ADHD .25 1.29 1.02–1.63 .032 1.00 2.71 .84–8.80 .097 1.00 2.71 .83–8.81 .097
 Adjusted for other NDDs .28 1.33 1.05–1.67 .016 1.00 2.71 .84–8.80 .097 1.00 2.71 .83–8.81 .097
Dimensional variables Cohort estimate Within-pairs conditional estimate MZ only within-pair conditional estimate
β SE 95% CI (β) p value β SE 95% CI (β) p value β SE 95% CI (β) p value
IQ and MPAs
 No adjustments − .95 .32 − 1.59 to − .32 .003 .30 .69 − 1.04 to 1.64 .665 − .15 .67 − 1.46 to 1.17 .828
SRS-2 and MPAs
 No adjustments 3.02 .98 1.09 to 4.94 .002 1.49 1.80 − 2.04 to 5.02 .409 2.11 1.85 − 1.51 to 5.73 .254
 Adjusted for IQ 2.28 .97 .37 to 4.18 .019 1.78 1.83 − 1.82 to 5.37 .332 1.88 1.68 − 1.41 to 5.17 .263
  1. Cohort and within-pairs associations between ASD, autistic traits and the number of minor physical anomalies (MPAs). The cohort model estimates associations between variables while accounting for the twin correlation; the within-pairs model estimates associations after adjusting for factors shared within twins like genetics and environment. ADHD or other NDD diagnoses, as well as IQ, were used as covariates in the each of the models
  2. MPAs minor physical anomalies, MZ monozygotic, IQ intelligence quotient, ASD autism spectrum disorder, ADHD attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ID intellectual disability, NDD neurodevelopmental disorder, SRS-2 Social Responsiveness Scale-2