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Table 1 Parent and family characteristics of the study sample in percentages (n = 1604)

From: A longitudinal study of socioeconomic status, family processes, and child adjustment from preschool until early elementary school: the role of social competence

Description n %
Annual household income (in millions of yen)
 < 4 284 17.7
 4–5 536 33.4
 6–7 368 22.9
 8–9 185 11.5
 10–11 107 6.7
 ≥ 12 86 5.4
 No response 38 2.4
Maternal education level
 Compulsory education (9 years) 35 2.2
 Upper secondary school (12 years) 370 23.1
 Less than 4 years at college/university (13–15 years) 661 41.2
 Over 4 years at college/university (≥ 16 years) 529 33.0
 No response 9 .6
Paternal education level
 Compulsory education (9 years) 77 4.8
 Upper secondary school (12 years) 382 23.8
 Less than 4 years at college/university (13–15 years) 239 14.9
 Over 4 years at college/university (≥ 16 years) 895 55.8
 No response 11 .7