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Table 3 Correlations among socioeconomic status, marital conflict, parenting practice, and child social competence and adjustment (n = 1604)

From: A longitudinal study of socioeconomic status, family processes, and child adjustment from preschool until early elementary school: the role of social competence

Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Time 1—Preschool
 Socioeconomic status
  1. Family income            
  2. Maternal education level .33***           
  3. Paternal education level .30*** .42***          
 Marital conflict
  4. Destructive marital conflict − .14*** − .10*** − .14***         
  5. Constructive marital conflict .13*** .13*** .14*** − .62***        
 Parenting practice
  6. Negative parenting practices − .17*** − .14*** − .14*** .24*** − .16***       
  7. Positive parenting practices .14***  .13***  .09*** − .18***  .28*** − .21***      
 Child social competence
  8. Social skills .18*** .15*** .16*** − .24*** .23*** − .20*** .17***     
 Child adjustment             
  9. T1 internalizing problems − .14*** − .12*** − .09*** .23*** − .19*** .19*** − .13*** − .35***    
  10. T1 externalizing problems − .16*** − .12*** − .14*** .22*** − .19*** .36*** − .25*** − .44*** .36***   
Time 2—First grade
 Child adjustment
  11. T2 internalizing problems − .18*** − .19*** − .08*** .23*** − .21*** .19*** − .17*** − .44*** .64*** .33***  
  12. T2 externalizing problems − .19*** − .18*** − .17*** .24*** − .24*** .31*** − .24*** − .53*** .32*** .74*** .48***
  1. [Marital relationship] Destructive marital conflict: QCCS Co-parental Conflict; constructive marital conflict: QCCS Co-parental Support. [Parenting practice] Negative parenting practices: APQ Poor monitoring/supervision, Inconsistent discipline, Corporal punishment; positive parenting practices: APQ Involvement, Positive parenting. [Social competence] Social skills: SSQ Cooperation, Self-control, Assertion
  2. p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001