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Table 4 Path analyses (n = 1604)

From: A longitudinal study of socioeconomic status, family processes, and child adjustment from preschool until early elementary school: the role of social competence

Construct B SE β
Socioeconomic status
 Family income Destructive marital conflict − .11 .03 − 3.83***
 Family income Constructive marital conflict .09 .03 3.04**
 Family income Negative parenting practices − .11 .03 − 3.82***
 Family income Positive parenting practices .09 .03 3.05**
 Family income Social skills .09 .03 3.29**
 Family income T2 internalizing problems − .08 .02 − 3.48***
 Family income T2 externalizing problems − .06 .02 − 2.65**
 Maternal education level Destructive marital conflict − .03 .03 − .90
 Maternal education level Constructive marital conflict .07 .03 2.17*
 Maternal education level Negative parenting practices − .07 .03 − 2.28*
 Maternal education level Positive parenting practices .06 .03 2.03*
 Maternal education level Social skills .04 .03 1.18
 Maternal education level T2 internalizing problems − .09 .02 − 3.75***
 Maternal education level T2 externalizing problems − .05 .02 − 2.11*
 Paternal education level Destructive marital conflict − .10 .03 − 3.46***
 Paternal education level Constructive marital conflict .10 .03 3.31***
 Paternal education level Negative parenting practices − .06 .03 − 2.08*
 Paternal education level Positive parenting practices .01 .03 .38
 Paternal education level Social skills .08 .03 2.85**
 Paternal education level T2 internalizing problems −.04 .02 −1.69
 Paternal education level T2 externalizing problems − .02 .02 − .67
Marital conflict
 Destructive marital conflict Negative parenting practices .22 .03 6.83***
 Destructive marital conflict Positive parenting practices −.01 .03 −.30
 Destructive marital conflict Social skills − .11 .03 − 3.47***
 Destructive marital conflict T2 internalizing problems .08 .03 3.08**
 Destructive marital conflict T2 externalizing problems .05 .02 2.25*
 Constructive marital conflict Negative parenting practices −.01 .03 −.19
 Constructive marital conflict Positive parenting practices .26 .03 8.16***
 Constructive marital conflict Social skills .09 .03 2.68**
 Constructive marital conflict T2 internalizing problems − .03 .03 − 1.09
 Constructive marital conflict T2 externalizing problems − .01 .02 − .54
Parenting practice
 Negative parenting practices Social skills − .10 .03 − 3.90***
 Negative parenting practices T2 internalizing problems .07 .02 3.30***
 Negative parenting practices T2 externalizing problems .20 .02 10.08***
 Positive parenting practices Social skills .08 .03 3.10**
 Positive parenting practices T2 internalizing problems − .05 .02 − 2.56**
 Positive parenting practices T2 externalizing problems − .10 .02 − 4.90***
Child social competence
 Social skills T2 internalizing problems − .38 .02 − 18.65***
 Social skills T2 externalizing problems − .45 .02 − 22.75***
Child adjustment
 T1 internalizing problems T2 internalizing problems .50 .02 27.03***
 T1 externalizing problems T2 externalizing problems .39 .02 21.30***
  1. p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001