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Table 1 Child physical abuse variables from the questionnaire Liv & Hälsa ung 2011 (Life & Health Young) and eligible answer options

From: Child physical abuse: factors influencing the associations between self-reported exposure and self-reported health problems: a cross-sectional study

Item Answer options Coded responsesa
Have you been slapped on the ear/been beaten by an adult? No
Yes, once
Yes, several times
No
Yes
Yes
How often and by whom have you been slapped on the ear/been beaten?a,c Never, by mother, father, mothers partner, fathers partner, another adult
Yes, once or twice by mother, father, mothers partner, fathers partner, another adult
Yes, several times by mother, father, mothers partner, fathers partner, another adult
Frequency was coded as low if the child answered “once or twice” and high if the child answered more than twice
Perpetrator was coded mother, father, stepparent. If the child only answered “another adult” answers were excluded
In what way have you been beaten by an adult?b Been slapped on the ear, been shaken, pulled by the hair
Lighter beatings with the hand/fist
Harder beatings with the hand/fist
Beaten with a stick or a belt
Another way
Severe abuse was coded if the child answered that he or she had been exposed to harder beatings with hand/fist and/or had been beaten with an object
Have you told anyone that you have been slapped on the ear/been beaten?b Yes, told siblings, peers, girlfriend or boyfriend
Yes, told parent/other close adult
Yes, told school staff, social services, police, health care personnel or similar
No
Not told any authority was indicated if the child did not choose this answer option
Has this (that you have been slapped on the ear/been beaten) occurred during the last 12 months? Yes
No
Last year exposure was codes if the child answered yes
  1. aDichotomized coded items
  2. bResponse options are multiple choice
  3. cMatrix question with 15 answer options