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Table 4 Adolescents with experience of care-giver abuse and how their general, mental and physical health problems are distributed over different background variables (only significant interactions, 3-way and higher, in italics, are presented)

From: Child physical abuse: factors influencing the associations between self-reported exposure and self-reported health problems: a cross-sectional study

Interaction p OR (95% CI)
Mental health problems
 Mental*mother-abuse*LYexp*foreign 0.011  
 Foreign = no
  Mental*mother-abuse*LYexp 0.041  
 LYexp = no
  Mental*mother-abuse 0.043 1.63 (1.01–2.63)
 LYexp = yes
  Mental*mother-abuse 0.294α 0.71 (0.37–1.35)
 Foreign = yes
  Mental*mother-abuse*LYexp 0.043  
 LYexp = no
  Mental*mother-abuse 0.100β 0.45 (0.17–1.18)
 LYexp = yes
  Mental*mother-abuse 0.636β 1.52 (0.26–8.77)
  Mental*father-abuse*LYexp*type 0.042  
 Type = mild
  Mental*father-abuse*LYExp 0.003  
 LYexp = no
  Mental* father-abuse 0.040 0.63 (0.40–0.98)
 LYexp = yes
  Mental* father-abuse 0.027 2.27 (1.09–4.73)
 Type = severe
  Mental*father-abuse* LYExp 0.494  
 LYexp = yes or no
  Mental*father-abuse 0.559α 0.89 (0.63–1.30)
Physical health problems
 Physical *type*gender < 0.001  
  Physical*type < 0.001 5.54 (2.68–11.45)
  Physical*type 0.593α 1.16 (0.67–2.00)
  Physical*mother-abuse*LYexp  < 0.001  
 LYexp = no
  Physical*mother-abuse 0.032 1.67 (1.04–2.67)
 LYexp = yes
  Physical*mother-abuse 0.009 0.44 (0.24–0.82)
General health problems
 General *mother-abuse*LYexp 0.035  
 LYexp = no
  General*mother-abuse 0.033 2.25 (1.05–4.81)
 LYexp = yes
  General*mother-abuse 0.384 0.72 (0.34–1.52)
Mental and physical health problems
 Mental*physical*mother-abuse*gender 0.024  
  Mental*physical*mother-abuse 0.177γ  
  Mental*physical < 0.001 4.51 (2.22–9.19)
  Mental*physical*mother-abuse 0.038  
  Mother-abuse (no) mental*physical 0.055 2.01 (0.98–4.12)
  Mother-abuse (yes) mental*physical < 0.001 5.40 (2.96–8.96)
  1. Odds ratios (OR) show the increased odds of health problem in case of presence of the other variable included compared to not
  2. Variables: general = general health problems (no, yes), mental = mental health problems (no, yes), physical = physical health problems (no, yes), Genmoo der (boys, girls), mother-abuse (no, yes), father-abuse (no, yes), LYexp = last-year experience (no, yes), type = type of abuse (mild, severe), foreign = foreign background (no, yes)
  3. p-values for three- or four-way interactions are based on Likelihood Ratios (which tests the null hypothesis that the interaction is zero) and p-values for two-way interactions, in order to explain higher-order interactions, are based on Chi square tests of homogeneity. The strength of (significant) two-way interactions are given by odds ratios (OR). (e.g. mental*physical has OR = 4.51 means that adolescents with experience of physical health problems have 4.51 times higher odds to also have mental health problems compared to adolescents without physical health problems.)
  4. αNon-significant test is given as reference to explain overlying three-way interaction (i.e. that the two-way interaction in this subgroup is different compared to the other subgroup(s) included in the three-way interaction)
  5. βThe two-way interactions are not significant, but they have different directions (i.e. odds ratios are on opposite sides of 1), which explains the significant three-way interaction
  6. γNon-significant test is given as reference to explain overlying four-way interaction (i.e. that the three-way interaction in this subgroup is different compared to the other subgroup included in the four-way interaction)