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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for the pooled sample and separately for adolescents without depression (control group) and adolescents with depression at baseline, and differences between these groups (reference category = control group)

From: Somatic symptoms in adolescence as a predictor of severe mental illness in adulthood: a long-term community-based follow-up study

  All (n = 375) Adolescents without depression (n = 182) Adolescents with depression (n = 193) OR 95% CI
% (n) % (n) % (n)
Sex
 Males (ref.) 19.7 (74) 22.0 (40) 17.6 (34) 1.00
 Females 80.3 (301) 78.0 (142) 82.4 (159) 1.32 0.79–2.19
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  Mean (s.d.) Mean (s.d.) Mean (s.d.) t test  
Adolescence
 Number of concurrent somatic symptoms 2.21 (2.36) 1.27 (1.76) 3.10 (2.50) p < 0.001  
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  Mean (s.d.) Mean (s.d.) Mean (s.d.) χ2 p
0 27.5 (103) 41.7 (76) 14.0 (27)   
1 23.2 (87) 26.4 (48) 20.2 (39)   
2–4 34.4 (129) 27.5 (50) 40.9 (79)   
≥5 14.9 (56) 4.4 (8) 24.9 (48) 59.06 < 0.001
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  % (n) % (n) % (n) OR 95% CI
Adolescent anxiety 28.0 (105) 7.1 (13) 47.7 (92) 11.84*** 6.30–22.25
Conflicts between parents 20.8 (78) 11.5 (21) 29.5 (57) 3.21*** 1.85–5.57
Conflicts with parents 19.5 (73) 7.7 (14) 30.6 (59) 5.28*** 2.83–9.87
Physical abuse 12.3 (46) 6.0 (11) 18.1 (35) 3.44** 1.69–7.01
Economic hardship 6.9 (26) 1.7 (3) 11.9 (23) 8.07** 2.38–27.38
Parental unemployment 11.5 (43) 6.6 (12) 16.1 (31) 2.71** 1.35–5.46
Somatic illness 20.3 (76) 13.7 (25) 26.4 (51) 2.26** 1.33–3.83
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  % (n) % (n) % (n) OR 95% CI
Adulthood
 Any hospital-based mental health care diagnosis 15.2 (57) 8.8 (16) 21.2 (41) 2.80** 1.51–5.19
 F10–F19 Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use 2.1 (8) 1.7 (3) 2.6 (5) 1.59 0.37–6.74
 F20–F29 Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders 0.5 (2) 0.0 (0) 1.0 (2)
 F30–F39 Mood disorders 7.2 (27) 4.4 (8) 9.8 (19) 2.38* 1.01–5.57
 F40–F48 Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders 9.1 (34) 6.6 (12) 11.4 (22) 1.82 0.87–3.80
 F50–F59 Behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors 1.9 (7) 1.7 (3) 2.1 (4) 1.26 0.28–5.72
 F60–F69 Disorders of adult personality and behavior 1.6 (6) 1.1 (2) 2.1 (4) 1.90 0.34–10.53
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05