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Table 1 Included studies sample characteristics, methods of assessment, and quality ratings

From: A systematic review of wellbeing in children: a comparison of military and civilian families

Study Design N Males (%) Child ethnicity (%) Child age or school grade Outcomes assessed Quality rating
Acion et al. [28] Cross-sectional Civilian 57,637 49.3 85.9 6th, 8th, 11th grade Alcohol/drug use in last 30 days Good
Deployed 1758
Barnes et al. [24] Longitudinal Civilian 53 51.7 25.6 M 15.8 years (SD 1.1) Stress, PTSD Good
Military parent 59
Deployed 21
Cederbaum et al. [31]a Cross-sectional Civilian 12,385 48.1 28.3 7th, 9th, 11th grade Suicidal ideation, positive affect, depression Fair
Military parent 1305
Military sibling 609
Gilreath et al. [15]a Cross-sectional Civilian 12,555 47.9 28.2 7th, 9th, 11th grade Alcohol/drug use in last 30 days Good
Military parent 1338
Military sibling 619
Gilreath et al. [29]a Cross-sectional Civilian 283,593 49.1 23.5 9–11th grade Suicidal ideation Good
Military parent 27,547
Reed et al. [14]b Cross-sectional Civilian 8237 57.2 N/A 8th, 10th, 12th grade Quality of life, depression, suicidal ideation Good
Military parent 1216
Deployed 557
Reed et al. [26]b Cross-sectional Civilian 9978 56.0 60.5 8th, 10th, 12th grade Binge drinking over last 2 weeks, drug use in last 30 days, externalising behaviour Good
Military parent 1210
Deployed 554
Reinhardt et al. [30] Cross-sectional Civilian 3370 49.6 36.0 9–12th grade Externalising behaviour Good
Military parent 539
Sullivan et al. [27]a Cross-sectional Civilian 634,029 49.6 21.4 7th, 9th, 11th grade Externalising behaviour, alcohol/drug use in last 30 days Good
Military parent 54,684
  1. N = total number of child participants. Child ethnicity is reported as percentage Caucasian children. Males = the percentage of male children in the study. Military parent/sibling = child reports having a primary caregiver or sibling in the armed forces. Deployed = child reports that parent/sibling has been deployed to a combat zone. N/A not available, M mean, SD standard deviation. Adjustment difficulties measured = type of child psychological difficulty assessed by the study and included in the analysis. Quality rating score: studies meeting criteria for items three, eleven and fourteen on the NIH [25] study quality checklist received a score of ‘good.’ A study that met criteria on two of three items received a quality rating score of ‘fair.’ A study that met one or none of these items received a score of ‘poor.’ All studies assessed child wellbeing using self-report questionnaires
  2. aData from the state-wide California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) was used. Cederbaum et al. [31] reported CHKS data from children recruited during 2011. Gilreath et al. [15] reported CHKS data from a sub-sample of children recruited during February–March 2011 from schools in southern California. Gilreath et al. [29] used CHKS data from children recruited between 2012 and 2013. Sullivan et al. [27] reported CHKS data collected during March–April 2013
  3. bData from the Washington State 2008 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) was used. Reed et al. [14] reported on HYS data collected in 2008, with data regarding suicidal ideation and poor quality of life used for the present study. Reed et al. [26] reported HYS data collected in 2008 with data regarding child violent behaviour and substance use used for the present study