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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Parental military deployment as risk factor for children’s mental health: a meta-analytical review

Author Year Age group assessed Instruments Effect size
Total problem score Anxiety/depression Aggressive behavior Hyperactivity/inattention
Kelley et al. [33] 2001 EC CBCL SMD
Ryan-Wenger [34] 2001 MC RCMAS RCMAS SMD
Ahmadzadeh and Malekian [35] 2004 AD AGQ CAS AGQ SMD
Weber and Weber [36] 2005 AD BPI SMD
Chartrand et al. [37] 2008 MC CBCL CES-DC SMD
Chandra et al. [6] 2008 MC AD SDQ Emotional problems (SDQ) Conduct problems (SDQ) Hyperactivity/inattention (SDQ) SMD
Flake et al. [38] 2009 MC PSC Attention issues (PSC) SMD
Morris and Age [39] 2009 AD SDQ Emotional problems (SDQ) Conduct problems (SDQ) EATQ–R SMD
Chandra et al. [40] 2010 AD SDQ Behavior problems (PBFS) SMD
Gorman et al. [41] 2010 EC PSY DIAG Anxiety disorder (PSY DIAG) Pediatric behavioral disorders (PSY DIAG)  ADHD (PSY DIAG) log OR
Lester et al. [42] 2010 MC CBCL MASC SMD
Aranda et al. [43] 2011a MC PSC Attention issues (PSC) SMD
Aranda et al. [43] 2011b AD Y-PSC Attention issues (PSC) SMD
Herzog et al. [44] 2011 MC CBCL SMD
Pfefferbaum et al. [45] 2011 AD BASC–2 Emotional symptoms (BASC–2) Behavioral symptoms (BASC–2) Hyperactivity/attention problems (BASC–2) SMD
Mansfield et al. [46] 2011 AD PSY DIAG Depressive and anxiety disorder (PSY DIAG) Pediatric behavioral disorders (PSY DIAG) Impulse control disorder (PSY DIAG)  log OR
Reed et al. [47] 2011 AD HYS HYS log OR
Wilson et al. [48] 2011 MC SDQ Conduct problems (SDQ) Hyperactivity/inattention (SDQ) SMD
Millegan et al. [49] 2013 AD PSY HOSP log OR
Cederbaum et al. [50] 2014 AD Kessler6 Kessler6 log OR
Hisle-Gorman et al. [51] 2014 MC PSY DIAG ADHD (PSY DIAG) log OR
Lucier-Greer et al. [52] 2014 AD CES-DC CES-DC SMD
Gewirtz et al. [53] 2014 MC BERS–2 SMD
Wilson et al. [54] 2014 EC MC AD SDQ Emotional problems (SDQ) Conduct problems (SDQ) Hyperactivity/inattention (SDQ) SMD
Arnold et al. [55] 2015 AD CES-DC CES-DC SMD
Mustillo et al. [56] 2016 EC MC SDQ Emotional problems (SDQ) Conduct problems (SDQ) Hyperactivity/inattention (SDQ) SMD
Meadows et al. [57, 58] 2016 MC AD SDQ Emotional problems (SDQ) Conduct problems (SDQ) Hyperactivity/inattention (SDQ) SMD
  1. ADHD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; AD, Adolescence; EC, early childhood; Log OR, log-transformed odds ratio; MC, middle childhood; SMD, standardized mean difference (= Cohen’s d); PSY DIAG/HOSP, psychiatric diagnoses/hospitalization
  2. Questionnaires: AGQ = Aggression Questionnaire-military [59]; BASC-2 = Behavior Assessment System for Children [60]; BERS-2 = Behavioral and emotional rating scale [61]; BPI = Behavioral Problems Index [62]; CAS = Cattle’s Anxiety Scale-military [63]; CBCL = Child Behavior Checklist, pre-/school age form [64, 65]; CES-DC = Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Children [66]; EATQ-R = Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised [67]; HYS = Healthy Youth Survey (excerpts for depression symptoms; [68]; Kessler6 [69]; MASC = Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children [70]; PBFS = Problem Behavior Frequency Scale [71]; PSC = Pediatric Symptom Checklist [72]; RCMAS = Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale [73]; SDQ = Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire [74]; Y-PSC = Youth Pediatric Symptom Checklist [75]