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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of the factors associated with cannabis and amphetamine use among school-going adolescents in Ghana

From: Cannabis and amphetamine use and its psychosocial correlates among school-going adolescents in Ghana

Variables Past-month cannabis use
N = 184
Lifetime amphetamine use
N = 238
No (%) Yes (%) p-value No (%) Yes (%) p-value
Demographics
 Gender 0.540    0.450
  Male 95.1 4.9 93.3 6.7  
  Female 94.6 5.4 92.6 7.4  
 Age in years 0.055    0.120
  11–17 years 94.2 5.8 92.4 7.6
  18 years and above 95.8 4.2 93.9 6.1
Mental health problems
 Anxiety 0.068    0.052
  Yes 91.7 8.3 87.6 12.4
  No 95.3 4.7 93.8 6.2
 Loneliness 0.032    0.018
  Yes 91.5 8.5 88.7 11.3
  No 95.4 4.6 93.7 6.3
 Suicidal ideation 0.011    0.091
  Yes 87.9 12.1 85.5 14.5
  No 96.6 3.4 95.0 5.0
 Suicidal plan 0.019    0.049
  Yes 90.3 9.7 88.0 12.0
  No 97.1 2.9 95.3 4.7
 Suicidal attempt 0.028    0.012
  Yes 85.5 14.5 82.3 17.7
  No 97.8 2.2 96.3 3.7
Personal attributes
 Truancy < 0.001    < 0.001
  Yes 89.0 11.0 87.6 12.4
  No 98.2 1.8 96.0 4.0
 Smoked cigarette < 0.001    0.003
  Yes 54.9 45.1 56.2 43.8
  No 97.3 2.7 95.5 4.5
 Close friends 0.021    0.610
  Yes 94.9 5.1 92.9 7.1
  No 95.5 4.5 93.7 6.3
 Peer support 0.680    0.720
  Yes 94.6 5.4 92.7 7.3
  No 94.9 5.1 93.0 7.0
 Sexual risk behaviour 0.061    0.065
  Yes 88.0 12.0 86.1 13.9
  No 96.6 3.4 94.8 5.2
School environmental factors
 Bullying victimization 0.044    < 0.001
  Yes 91.7 8.3 89.3 10.7
  No 98.0 2.0 96.7 3.3
 Physically attacked 0.060    < 0.001
  Yes 90.4 9.6 87.6 12.4
  No 97.8 2.2 96.5 3.5
 Physical fight 0.058    0.049
  Yes 90.7 9.3 88.6 11.4
  No 97.1 2.9 95.3 4.7
 Hunger 0.030    0.080
  Yes 90.9 9.1   88.6 11.4
  No 95.4 4.6   93.6 6.4
Parental attributes
 Parental substance use 0.018    < 0.001
  Yes 81.7 18.3 79.6 20.4
  No 96.5 3.5 94.8 5.2
 Parental monitoring 0.070    0.270
  Yes 95.6 4.4 92.3 7.7
  No 94.3 5.7 93.3 6.7
 Parental understanding 0.010    0.620
  Yes 96.1 3.9 92.7 7.3
  No 93.9 6.1 93.2 6.8
 Parental bonding 0.110    0.890
  Yes 95.6 4.4 93.2 6.8
  No 94.3 5.7 93.0 7.0
 Parental intrusion of privacy 0.060    0.090
  Yes 95.4 4.6 93.6 6.4
  No 93.9 6.1 92.1 7.9