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Table 2 Group differences in terms of Strength and Difficulties Questionnaires, mean/n [SD(%)]

From: Mental health and risk behaviors of children in rural China with different patterns of parental migration: a cross-sectional study

  B-LBC
(1)
O-LBC
(2)
N-LBC
(3)
F or χ2 PC$
Emotional symptomsa, mean (SD) 3.6 (2.2) 3.5 (2.2) 3.3 (2.1) 4.75** (1, 3)
Emotional symptoms (categorical)1     10.58** (1, 3)
 Normal/borderline (0–6) 608 (87.5) 490 (88.9) 683 (92.5)   
 Abnormal (7–10) 87 (12.5) 61 (11.1) 55 (7.5)   
Conduct problemsb, mean (SD) 2.5 (1.6) 2.4 (1.6) 2.4 (1.6) 0.82  
Conduct problems (categorical)2     0.65  
 Normal/borderline (0–4) 619 (89.1) 493 (90.5) 660 (89.6)   
 Abnormal (5–10) 76 (10.9) 52 (9.5) 77 (10.4)   
Hyperactivityc, mean (SD) 4.1 (2.2) 4.0 (2.1) 3.8 (2.1) 3.64* (1, 3)
Hyperactivity (categorical)3     8.31* (1, 3)
 Normal/borderline (0–6) 601 (86.0) 474 (86.3) 668 (90.5)   
 Abnormal (7–10) 98 (14.0) 75 (13.7) 70 (9.5)   
Peer problemsd, mean (SD) 2.7 (1.7) 2.7 (1.6) 2.6 (1.6) 0.98  
Peer problems (categorical)4     2.00  
 Normal/borderline (0–5) 653 (93.4) 521 (94.6) 702 (95.1)   
 Abnormal (6–10) 46 (6.6) 30 (5.4) 36 (4.9)   
Total difficulties scoree, mean (SD) 12.8 (5.5) 12.7 (5.3) 12.0 (5.2) 4.25* (1, 3)
Total difficulties score (categorical)5     8.53* (1, 3)
 Normal/borderline (0–19) 600 (86.8) 479 (88.7) 667 (91.6)   
 Abnormal (20–40) 91 (13.2) 61 (11.3) 61 (8.4)   
Prosocialf, mean (SD) 6.9 (2.0) 6.8 (2.1) 7.0 (2.0) 2.03  
Prosocial (categorical)6     1.82  
 Normal/borderline (5–10) 625 (89.9) 491 (89.1) 672 (91.3)   
 Abnormal (0–4) 70 (10.1) 60 (10.9) 64 (8.7)   
  1. B-LBC left-behind children with both parents migrating, O-LBC left-behind children with one parent migrating, N-LBC neither parents had migrated
  2. * p < 0.05, **p  < 0.01
  3. $PC indicate the significance of pairwise comparisons in the post hoc analysis
  4. aPartial η2 = 0.005; bPartial η2 = 0.001; cPartial η2 = 0.004; dPartial η2 = 0.001; ePartial η2 = 0.004; fPartial η2 = 0.002
  5. 1: Phi = 0.073; 2: Phi = 0.018; 3: Phi = 0.065; 4: Phi = 0.032; 5: Phi = 0.066; 6: Phi = 0.030