Skip to main content

Table 3 The association between executive functioning and ASD diagnoses (n = 3796; diagnoses n = 56)

From: Executive functioning and neurodevelopmental disorders in early childhood: a prospective population-based study

  ASD diagnoses
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Executive functioning total 3.22 2.49–4.18 < .001 2.90 2.18–3.86 < .001 2.69 1.92–3.77 < .001
Inhibition 5.50 3.58–8.48 < .001 4.25 2.68–6.74 < .001 3.35 1.98–5.67 < .001
Shifting 10.29 6.10–17.37 < .001 7.87 4.56–13.56 < .001 6.39 3.57–11.45 < .001
Emotional control 6.95 4.07–11.86 < .001 5.54 3.15–9.74 < .001 4.13 2.17–7.85 < .001
Working memory 4.72 3.11–7.17 < .001 3.74 2.38–5.90 < .001 2.86 1.72–4.76 < .001
Planning/organizing 4.39 2.39–8.04 < .001 3.04 1.59–5.82 .001 1.81 0.88–3.72 .107
  1. Parameter estimates are odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and significance values. Model 1 is unadjusted
  2. Model 2 is adjusted for covariates: gender, gestational age, ethnicity, maternal education, and maternal psychopathology. Model 3 is adjusted for the covariates in model 2 and baseline emotional and behavioral problems (parent-rated CBCL total problems at age 3)