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Table 1 Operationalisation of the measurements

From: Looking into the crystal ball: quality of life, delinquency, and problems experienced by young male adults after discharge from a secure residential care setting in the Netherlands

DomainVariableInstrumentQuestionScores
Quality of lifeQuality of lifeMANSA12 subjective questions
Total mean score
0 = low to average scores (scores 4 or lower)
1 = high scores (scores higher than 4)
Daily lifeLiving situationMANSAWith whom do you live?0 = independent living (alone, with a partner, with peers)
1 = living with (foster) family (with own parents, with foster parents, with another family)
2 = residential care facilities (judicial institutions, sheltered housing, psychiatric hospitals, residential care)
Structured activitiesMANSAWhat is your work situation?0 = no structured activities (unemployment, work in prison, intention of new studies in the future)
1 = structured activities (education, work, sheltered employment, volunteer work)
Social security benefitsMANSADo you receive social security benefits?0 = no social security benefits
1 = social security benefits
Social lifeIntimate relationship at the time of the FU-studyInterviewDo you have a relationship at this time?0 = no
1 = yes
Intimate relationship after dischargeInterviewHave you had (other) relationships since your discharge from the hospital?0 = no
1 = yes
Number of close friendsASRApproximately how many close friends do you have? (Do not include family members)0 = none
1 = one to three
2 = four or more
Delinquent peersInterviewDid one of your friends have contact with police or justice authorities in the past year?0 = no
1 = yes
Quality relationship with motherASRCompared with others, how well do you get along with your mother?0 = worse than average
1 = average
2 = better than average
Quality relationship with fatherASRCompared with others, how well do you get along with your father?0 = worse than average
1 = average
2 = better than average
ProblemsProblem behaviourASRInternalising and externalising syndrome scales0 = no problems (raw scores in the normal range)
1 = problems (raw scores in the borderline or clinical range)
DebtsInterviewDo you have debts at this moment?0 = no
1 = yes
Substance abuseSubstance use questionnaireOn how many weekdays (Monday to Thursday) do you usually drink alcohol?
On how many of the weekend days (Friday to Sunday) do you usually drink alcohol?
How often have you used cannabis (marijuana) or hash in the last 12 months?
How often have you used cocaine (coke or white) or heroin (horse, smack, or brown) in the past 12 months?
How often have you used XTC (ecstasy, MDMA), magic mushrooms, amphetamines (uppers, pep, or speed), or GHB in the past 12 months?
0 = no (soft drug and alcohol use less than 4 days a week, and hard drug use less than 2 days a week)
1 = yes (soft drug or alcohol use at least 4 days a week, and/or hard drug use more than 2 days a week)
999 = missing (alcohol, soft drug and/or hard drug use missing and the other variable(s) scored no)
 Professional supportInterviewDo you receive any professional support at this time?0 = no
1 = yes
DelinquencyOffences after dischargeInterviewHave you committed one or more offences after discharge for which you were or were not convicted, or which are unknown to the police?0 = no
1 = yes
Violent offencesa after dischargeInterviewIf yes, which type of offence(s) did you commit?0 = no violent offences
1 = one or more violent offences
Non-violent offencesa after dischargeInterviewIf yes, which type of offence(s) did you commit?0 = no non-violent offences
1 = one or more non-violent offences
  1. aThe difference between violent and non-violent offences was based on the definition of violence in the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY): “Violence is a deed of abuse or physical violence sufficient to cause an injury to one or more persons (for instance, cuts, bruises, bone fractures, death, et cetera), no matter whether this injury really occurred or not; every form of sexual assault; or threat with a weapon. In general, these deeds need to be sufficiently serious to (could) have led to prosecution for criminality.” [21]