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Table 3 The attitudes of the nurses towards patients with NSSI and differences according to gender, education, workplace and religious status

From: The attitudes and feelings of mental health nurses towards adolescents and young adults with nonsuicidal self-injuring behaviors

Statements regarding the attitude x s Gender Education Workplace Religiousness G (p) E (p) W (p) R (p)
F (n = 38) M (n = 14) H (n = 27) M (n = 25) P (n = 28) N –P (n = 24) R (n = 22) N –R (n = 54)
20. I listen fully to self-harming clients’ problems and experiences* 4.64 0.74 4.71 ± 0.456 4.45 ±1.234 4.54 ± 0.942 4.67 ± 0.435 4.64 ± 0.994 4.65 ± 0.482 4.86 ± 0.351 4.56 ± 0.839 0.952 0.459 0.163 0.077
23. I demonstrate warmth and understanding to self-harming clients in my care* 4.61 0.49 4.64 ± 0.483 4.50 ± 0.513 4.62 ± 0.493 4.59 ± 0.498 4.70 ± 0.467 4.53 ± 0.505 4.68 ± 0.477 4.57 ± 0.499 0.265 0.854 0.155 0.384
26. I acknowledge self-harming clients’ qualities* 4.43 0.70 4.46 ± 0.687 4.35 ± 0.745 4.56 ± 0.598 4.30 ± 0.777 4.67 ± 0.540 4.26 ± 0.759 4.36 ± 0.848 4.46 ± 0.636 0.542 0.126 0.011 0.852
21. I feel concern for the self-harming client* 4.51 0.55 4.55 ± 0.537 4.40 ± 0.598 4.56 ± 0.502 4.64 ± 0.605 4.58 ± 0.502 4.47 ± 0.592 4.59 ± 0.503 4.48 ± 0.574 0.314 0.524 0.475 0.495
28. I can really help self-harming clients* 3.59 0.77 3.59 ± 0.804 3.60 ± 0.681 3.56 ± 0.788 3.62 ± 0.758 3.67 ± 0.595 3.53 ± 0.882 3.50 ± 0.859 3.63 ± 0.734 0.799 0.657 0.389 0.692
24. I help self-harming clients feel positive about themselves* 4.30 0.65 4.27 ± 0.700 4.40 ± 0.503 4.18 ± 0.756 4.43 ± 0.502 4.27 ± 0.574 4.33 ± 0,715 4.36 ± 0.727 4.28 ± 0.628 0.596 0.176 0.510 0.436
10. There is no way of reducing self-harm behaviors 1.82 0.81 1.80 ± 0.818 1.85 ± 0.813 1.85 ± 0.844 1.78 ± 0.787 1.42 ± 0.792 2.12 ± 0.697 1.77 ± 0.685 1.83 ± 0.863 0.755 0.823 ˂0.001 0.956
7. A self-harming client is a complete waste of time 1.30 0.46 1.30 ± 0.464 1.30 ± 0,470 1.36 ± 0.486 1.24 ± 0.435 1.24 ± 0.435 1.35 ± 0.482 1.23 ± 0.429 1.33 ± 0.476 0.976 0.276 0.320 0.365
4. Self-harming clients do not respond to care 1.58 0.75 1.57 ± 0.806 1.60 ± 0.598 1.49 ± 0.683 1.68 ± 0.818 1.42 ± 0.663 1.70 ± 0.803 1.41 ± 0.666 1.65 ± 0.781 0.515 0.323 0.115 0.197
9. Self-harm is a serious moral wrongdoing 1.61 0.77 1.59 ± 0.757 1.65 ± 0.813 1.46 ± 0.643 1.76 ± 0.863 1.30 ± 0.529 1.84 ± 0.843 1.64 ± 1.002 1.59 ± 0.659 0.767 0.130 0.002 0.591
16. Self-harming clients have only themselves to blame for their situation 1.54 0.74 1.57 ± 0.783 1.45 ± 0.605 1.44 ± 0.598 1.65 ± 0.857 1.45 ± 0.617 1.60 ± 0.821 1.59 ± 0.959 1.52 ± 0.637 0.697 0.365 0.554 0.754
1. People who self-harm are usually trying to get sympathy from others 2.20 1.36 2.21 ± 1.552 2.15 ± 0.745 2.23 ± 1.667 2.16 ± 0.928 1.85 ± 0.667 2.47 ± 1.667 2.23 ± 0.973 2.19 ± 1.493 0.497 0.561 0.053 0.570
6. People who self-harm are typically trying to get even with someone 1.83 0.79 1.77 ± 0.786 2.00 ± 0.795 1.72 ± 0.793 1.95 ± 0.780 1.76 ± 0.792 1.88 ± 0.793 1.73 ± 0.767 1.87 ± 0.802 0.229 0.192 0.489 0.492
5. When individuals self-harm, it is often to manipulate carers 2.26 0.90 2.29 ± 0.929 2.20 ± 0.834 2.13 ± 0.801 2.41 ± 0.985 2.21 ± 0.740 2.30 ± 1.013 2.45 ± 0.963 2.19 ± 0.870 0.708 0.272 0.807 0.351
15. A self-harming client is a person who is only trying to get attention 2.21 0.91 2.20 ± 0.942 2.25 ± 0.851 2.15 ± 0.961 2.27 ± 0.871 2.24 ± 0.792 2.19 ± 1.006 2.41 ± 0.908 2.13 ± 0.912 0.642 0.485 0.660 0.204
18. Self-harming clients have a great need for acceptance and understanding* 4.20 0.83 4.29 ± 0.847 3.95 ± 0.759 4.13 ± 0.978 4.27 ± 0.652 4.27 ± 0.839 4.14 ± 0.833 4.36 ± 0.658 4.13 ± 0.891 0.045 0.909 0.402 0.386
11. People who self-harm lack solid religious convictions 1.57 0.84 1.48 ± 0.713 1.80 ± 1.105 1.54 ± 0.913 1.59 ± 0.762 1.45 ± 0.869 1.65 ± 0.813 1.68 ± 0.839 1.52 ± 0.841 0.313 0.475 0.181 0.348
2. People should be allowed to self-harm in a safe environment 1.66 0.93 1.71 ± 0.929 1.50 ± 0.946 1.85 ± 1.014 1.46 ± 0.803 1.52 ± 0.834 1.77 ± 0.996 1.59 ± 0.854 1.69 ± 0.968 0.199 0.075 0.228 0.763
12. Self-harm may be a form of reassurance for the individual that they are really alive and human* 2.83 1.06 2.98 ± 1.036 2.40 ± 1.046 3.03 ± 1.013 2.62 ± 1.089 2.94 ± 1.116 2.74 ± 1.026 2.68 ± 0.955 2.89 ± 1.093 0.030 0.108 0.266 0.347
14. Acts of self-harm are a form of communication to their situation* 3.93 0.75 4.05 ± 0.749 3.60 ± 0.61 4.00 ± 0.725 3.86 ± 0.787 4.06 ± 0.788 3.84 ± 0.721 3.77 ± 0.813 4.00 ± 0.727 0.021 0.411 0.170 0.245
13. Self-harming individuals can learn new ways of coping* 4.13 1.00 4.14 ± 1.017 4.10 ± 1.017 4.23 ± 1.012 4.03 ± 1.040 4.42 ± 0.840 3.91 ± 1.109 4.32 ± 0.945 4.06 ± 1.054 0.878 0.241 0.022 0.217
19. A self-harming client deserves the highest. standards of care on every occasion* 3.88 0.98 3.93 ± 1.006 3.75 ± 0.910 4.05 ± 0.826 3.70 ± 1.102 3.79 ± 1.023 3.95 ± 0.950 4.00 ± 1.069 3.83 ± 0.947 0.350 0.188 0.493 0.345
22. I feel critical towards self-harming clients 1.51 0.72 1.54 ± 0.738 1.45 ± 0.686 1.54 ± 0.756 1.49 ± 0.692 1.36 ± 0.653 1.63 ± 0.757 1.32 ± 0.568 1.59 ± 0.765 0.654 0.801 0.079 0.141
25. I feel to blame when my clients self-harm 2.57 1.21 2.79 ± 1.155 1.95 ± 1.191 2.67 ± 1.084 2.46 ± 1.346 2.21 ± 1.083 2.84 ± 1.252 2.82 ± 1.368 2.46 ± 1.145 0.004 0.304 0.036 0.311
27. I find it rewarding to care for self-harming clients* 1.55 0.75 1.59 ± 0.757 1.45 ± 0.759 1.59 ± 0.818 1.51 ± 0.692 1.67 ± 0.816 1.47 ± 0.702 1.73 ± 0.935 1.48 ± 0.666 0.394 0.858 0.280 0.408
29. I would feel ashamed if a member of my family engaged in self-harm 1.75 0.99 1.75 ± 1.031 1.75 ± 0.910 1.74 ± 0.938 1.76 ± 1.065 1.67 ± 0.890 1.81 ± 1.075 2.82 ± 0.935 1.72 ± 0.920 0.816 0.932 0.649 0.915
  1. N = 76; The data are presented as average ± standard deviation and p—Mann–Whitney U-test statistical significance; Gender: M – male/F—female; Education: H – technical, university level or post-graduate / M—high school; Workplace: P—psychotherapeutic unit / N-P—non-psychotherapeutic unit; Religiousness: R – actively religious / N-R—not actively religious; respondents replied on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = I completely agree; 1 = I don't agree at all). *—questions measuring low antipathy (positive attitudes) in the original SHAS, the rest measure high antipathy (negative attitudes). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) are in italic. Questions 8, 17 and 30 were removed from the analyses.