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Table 1 Description of the study variables

From: Psychosocial distress among in-school adolescents in Mozambique: a cross-sectional study using the Global School-Based Health Survey data

Variables Question Response options and recoding
Outcome variable
 Psychosocial distress Assessed using three mental health measures 0–5 (Coded as 1 = 2–5 and 0 = < 2)
 Loneliness During the past 12 months, how often have you felt lonely? 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = most of the time to 5 = always (coded as 1–3 = 0 and 4- 5 = 1)
 Anxiety During the past 12 months, how often have you been so worried about something that you could not sleep at night? 1 = never to 5 = always (coded 1–3 = 0 and 4 – 5 = 1)
 Suicide plan During the past 12 months, did you make a plan about how you would attempt suicide? 1 = Yes 2 = No Coded (1 = Yes and 0 = No)
 Suicidal attempt   1 = Yes 2 = No Coded (1 = Yes and 0 = No)
Suicidal ideation   
 Explanatory variables
 Age Custom age 1 = 12, 2 = 13, 3 = 14, 4 = 15, 5 = 16, 6 = 17, 7 = 18 years (coded as 0 = 12–14, 15 +=1)
 Sex Sex 1 = male, 2 = female
 Grade In what grade are you? 1 = 8th
2 = 9th
3 = 10th
4 = 11th
5 = 12th
 Hunger (proxy of socioeconomic status) Went hungry past 30 days 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = most of the times, 5 = always (coded 1–3 = 0, 4–5 = 1)
 Alcohol use During the past 30 days, on how many days did you have at least one drink containing alcohol? 1  =  0 days; to 7  =  All 30 days (coded as 1  =  0; and 2–7  =  1)
 Smoking During the past 30 days, how many days did you smoke cigarette? 1  =  0 days; to 7  =  All 30 days (coded as 1  =  0; and 2–7  =  1)
 Fight During the past 12 months, how many times were you in a physical fight? 1  =  0 times; to 8  =  12 or more times (coded 1  =  0; and 2–8  =  1)
 Bullied During the past 30 days, how were you bullied most often? 1  =  0 times; to 8  =  12 or more times (coded 1  =  0; and 2–7  =  1)
 Close friends How many close friends do you have? 1 = 0 to 4 = 3 or more (coded as 1 = 0, 1–2 = 1, 3 or more = 2)
 Truancy During the past 30 days, on how many days did you miss classes or school without permission? 1 = 0 days,2 = 1or 2 days, 3 = 3 to 5 days, 4 = 6 to 9 days, 5 = 10 or more (coded 1 = 0 and 2–5 = 1)
 Attacked During the past 12 months, how many times were you physically attacked? 1 = 0 days,2 = 1or 2 days, 3 = 3 to 5 days, 4 = 6 to 9 days, 5 = 10 or more (coded 1 = 0 and 2–5 = 1)
 Physical Activity During the past 7 days, on how many days were you physically active for a total of at least 60 min per day? 1 = 0 days to 8 = all 7 days (coded 1 = 5 or more days and 0–4 days = 0)
 Helpful (Peer support) During the past 30 days, how often were most of the students in your school kind and helpful? 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = most of the times, 5 = always (coded 1–3  =  0; and 4–5  =  1)
 Parents check homework (parental supervision) During the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians check to see if your homework was done? 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = most of the times, 5 = always (coded 1–3  =  0; and 4–5  =  1)
Parents understand problems and worries (Parental Connectedness) During the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians understand your problems and worries? 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = most of the times, 5 = always (coded 1–3  =  0; and 4–5  =  1)
 Parents know what adolescent do free time (Parental or guardian Bonding) During the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians really know what you were doing with your free time? 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = most of the times, 5 = always (coded 1–3  =  0; and 4–5  =  1)