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Table 4 Bivariate analysis of factors associated with the memory and attention scores

From: Video gaming addiction and its association with memory, attention and learning skills in Lebanese children

Variable Visual spatial organization Sustained sequential processing LEAF working memory Novel problem Mathematics skills Basic reading skills Written expression skills
Gender
 Male 2.96 ± 3.00 2.94 ± 2.93 2.94 ± 3.09 2.57 ± 2.88 1.97 ± 2.78 2.89 ± 3.56 3.76 ± 3.82
 Female 2.44 ± 2.60 2.45 ± 2.62 2.60 ± 2.49 2.36 ± 2.48 2.45 ± 3.16 2.24 ± 2.80 3.21 ± 3.19
 p 0.046 0.059 0.194 0.413 0.086 0.026 0.09
Father’s educational level
 Illiterate/primary 3.54 ± 3.54 3.60 ± 3.44 3.83 ± 3.73 3.08 ± 3.23 3.44 ± 3.91 4.02 ± 4.15 4.70 ± 4.11
 Complementary 3.25 ± 3.26 3.08 ± 3.07 3.21 ± 3.00 2.96 ± 2.95 2.42 ± 3.10 3.03 ± 3.21 4.25 ± 3.79
 Secondary 2.62 ± 2.64 2.82 ± 2.93 2.74 ± 2.80 2.63 ± 2.74 2.22 ± 2.91 2.60 ± 3.29 3.68 ± 3.83
 University 2.26 ± 2.34 2.19 ± 2.24 2.21 ± 2.31 1.92 ± 2.40 1.53 ± 2.32 1.92 ± 2.78 2.64 ± 2.80
 p 0.006 0.006 0.001 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Mother’s educational level
 Illiterate/primary 3.59 ± 3.81 3.13 ± 2.38 3.41 ± 2.97 2.82 ± 2.50 2.73 ± 2.86 3.32 ± 2.61 3.64 ± 3.50
 Complementary 3.46 ± 3.21 3.77 ± 3.58 3.71 ± 3.62 3.70 ± 3.47 3.28 ± 3.33 2.91 ± 2.84 4.96 ± 4.09
 Secondary 2.96 ± 3.01 3.04 ± 2.94 2.57 ± 2.58 2.27 ± 2.44 2.19 ± 3.32 2.81 ± 3.39 3.52 ± 3.63
 University 2.45 ± 2.53 2.41 ± 2.58 2.62 ± 2.72 2.31 ± 2.68 1.85 ± 2.63 2.41 ± 3.32 3.23 ± 3.37
 p 0.026 0.004 0.035 0.005 0.007 0.404 0.012
  1. Post hoc analysis: Father’s education level: working memory (illiterate/primary vs secondary p = 0.021; illiterate/primary vs university p = 0.002; complementary vs university p = 0.026); comprehension conceptual morning (illiterate/primary vs secondary p = 0.036; illiterate/primary vs university p < 0.001; complementary vs university p = 0.005); Factual memory (illiterate/primary vs university p = 0.001); attention (illiterate/primary vs secondary p = 0.022; illiterate/primary vs university p < 0.001; complementary vs university p = 0.003); processing speed (illiterate/primary vs university p = 0.014; complementary vs university p = 0.002); visual spatial organization (illiterate/primary vs university p = 0.034; complementary vs university p = 0.026); sustained sequential processing (illiterate/primary vs university p = 0.014); working memory (illiterate/primary vs university p = 0.003; complementary vs university p = 0.024); novel problem solving (complementary vs university p = 0.013); mathematics skills (illiterate/primary vs university p < 0.001); basic reading skills (illiterate/primary vs university p < 0.001; complementary vs university p = 0.033); written expression (illiterate/primary vs university p = 0.002; complementary vs university p = 0.001). Mother’s education level: comprehension conceptual learning (illiterate/primary vs secondary p = 0.033; illiterate/primary vs university p = 0.003; complementary vs university p = 0.005); Factual memory (complementary vs secondary p = 0.006; complementary vs secondary p = 0.008); LEAF attention (complementary vs secondary p = 0.012; complementary vs university p = 0.002); processing speed (complementary vs university p = 0.005); sustained sequential processing (complementary vs university p = 0.005); novel problem solving (complementary vs secondary p = 0.009; complementary vs secondary p = 0.004); mathematics skills (complementary vs university p = 0.005); written expression (complementary vs university p = 0.006)
  2. Italic values indicate significant p-values