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Table 6 Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA)

From: Video gaming addiction and its association with memory, attention and learning skills in Lebanese children

  Beta Partial Eta squared p-value 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Episodic memory
 Addiction video gaming salience 0.581 0.024 0.009 0.149 1.013
Working memory
 Addiction video gaming salience 0.292 0.013 0.058 − 0.010 0.594
 Addiction video gaming mood modification 0.213 0.012 0.061 − 0.010 0.437
 Father university compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.886 0.012 0.070 − 3.929 0.157
 Mother university compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 2.522 0.011 0.077 − 5.315 0.272
Visual memory
 Mother secondary compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 2.204 0.024 0.009 − 3.851 − 0.558
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.139 0.010 0.088 − 0.021 0.299
Clinical attention morning
 Addiction video gaming salience 0.562 0.057 < 0.001 0.294 0.830
 Addiction video gaming tolerance 0.411 0.026 0.007 0.114 0.708
 Father university compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 2.052 0.017 0.027 − 3.866 − 0.238
Clinical attention afternoon
 Addiction video gaming salience 0.561 0.049 0.001 0.270 0.851
 Addiction video gaming tolerance 0.367 0.018 0.025 0.046 0.689
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.293 0.016 0.035 0.020 0.565
LEAF comprehension conceptual learning
 Father university compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.445 0.021 0.006 − 2.464 − 0.425
 Mother university compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.348 0.017 0.055 − 2.723 0.028
LEAF factual memory
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.156 0.019 0.019 0.026 0.286
 Father university compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.103 0.011 0.015 − 1.988 − 0.218
 Mother secondary compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.724 0.027 0.006 − 2.960 − 0.489
 Mother university compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.357 0.026 0.026 − 2.551 − 0.164
LEAF attention
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.172 0.012 0.043 0.005 0.339
 Father university compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.660 0.021 0.014 − 2.988 − 0.332
LEAF processing speed
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.245 0.023 0.011 0.057 0.434
LEAF visual spatial organization
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.145 0.013 0.044 0.004 0.285
LEAF sustained sequential processing
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.244 0.032 0.001 0.098 0.389
LEAF working memory
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.183 0.022 0.014 0.037 0.329
 Father university − 1.254 0.006 0.019 − 2.302 − 0.205
LEAF novel problem solving
 Addiction video gaming salience 0.212 0.025 0.008 0.056 0.369
 Addiction video gaming tolerance 0.214 0.021 0.016 0.041 0.388
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.233 0.033 0.002 0.086 0.379
LEAF mathematic skills
 Gender (females vs males*) 0.849 0.020 0.018 0.148 1.551
 Father secondary level of education compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.319 0.015 0.040 − 2.578 − 0.059
 Father university level of education compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.534 0.021 0.015 − 2.769 − 0.299
LEAF basic reading skills
 Addiction video gaming salience 0.220 0.016 0.035 0.015 0.425
 Father university level of education compared to illiteracy/primary level* − 1.919 0.026 0.007 − 3.305 − 0.533
LEAF written expression skills
 Addiction video gaming salience 0.236 0.012 0.019 0.038 0.433
 Addiction video gaming withdrawal 0.231 0.016 0.015 0.044 0.417
 Father university − 1.917 0.022 0.005 − 3.256 − 0.577
  1. *Reference group