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Table 1 Group differences in baseline demographic factors, mental health and history of offending

From: Shared residential placement for child welfare and juvenile justice youth: current treatment needs and risk of adult criminal conviction

Characteristic Total (N = 354) Welfare Youth (N = 252) Juvenile Justice Youth (N = 102) Univariate test of difference
Demographic factors      
 Gender [% male (n)] 63.0% (223) 53.2% (134) 87.3% (89) χ2(1) = 36.18 ***
 Age mean (SD) 16.02 (1.64) 15.8 (1.55) 16.6 (1.76) t(320) = -3.95 ***
 Nationality [% Swiss (n)] 83.1% (294) 85.7% (216) 76.5% (78) χ2(1) = 4.41 *
 Born in Switzerland [% yes (n)] 76.0% (269) 77.8% (196) 71.6% (73) χ2(1) = 1.53 n.s
Language region of placement     χ2(2) = 8.81 **
 German [% (n)] 73.2% (259) 72.6% (183) 74.5% (76)   
 French [% (n)] 21.5% (76) 19.8% (50) 25.5% (26)   
 Italian [% (n)] 5.4% (19) 7.5% (19) 0.0% (0)   
Age at beginning of current placement mean (SD) 14.95 (1.74) 14.62 (1.72) 15.76 (1.51) t(350) = -5.89 ***
Planned duration of current placement mean (SD) 27.32 21.4 28.05 (22.65) 25.51 (17.93) t(350) = 1.01 n.s
Type of Institution     χ2(3) = 19.32 ***
 Transitional Placement 11.9% (42) 15.7% (16) 10.3% (26)   
 Group home with school or trade program 58.8% (208) 53.6% (135) 71.6% (73)   
 Group home without internal educational program 25.7% (91) 31.7% (80) 10.8% (11)   
 Other 3.7% (13) 4.4% (11) 2.0% (2)   
Institutionalization History      
 Previous residential or foster placement [% yes (n)] 46.3% (161) 45.2% (112) 49.0% (49) χ2(1) = 0.42 n.s
 Age at first placement mean (SD) 13.46 (3.45) 12.99 (3.67) 14.62 (2.51) t(269.86) = -4.81 ***
 Number of previous placements mean (SD) 0.97 (1.38) 0.93 (1.30) 1.09 (1.56) t(346) = -0.10 n.s
Mental health problems      
 Alcohol and drug use mean (SD) 2.87 (2.77) 2.54 (2.70) 3.76 (2.80) t(320) = -3.55 ***
 Angry-irritable mean (SD) 4.66 (2.68) 4.66 (2.61) 4.67 (2.87) t(320) = -0.02 n.s
 Depressed-anxious mean (SD) 3.04 (2.39) 3.14 (2.50) 2.75 (2.04) t(186.61) = 1.46 n.s
 Suicide ideation mean (SD) 2.08 (1.70) 2.17 (1.76) 1.82 (1.51) t(172.39) = 2.24 n.s
 More than one elevated MAYSI-2 scale [% yes (n)] 80.1% (258) 80.4% (189) 79.3% (69) χ2(1) = 0.50 n.s
Violence Exposure and Trauma      
 Traumatic Experience [% yes (n)] 84.8% (217) 84.5% (158) 85.5% (59) χ2(1) = 0.40 n.s
 Traumatic experiences mean (SD) 2.4 (1.47) 2.38 (1.42) 2.46 (1.61) t(320) = -0.42 n.s
 Direct victimization mean (SD) 2.04 (1.98) 2.11 (2.08) 1.85 (1.66) t(188.71) = 1.15 n.s
Self-reported previous delinquency      
 General delinquency mean (SD) 8.02 (7.07) 7.04 (6.64) 10.65 (7.55) t(316) = -4.15 ***
 Violent delinquency mean (SD) 1.53 (1.83) 1.27 (1.62) 2.23 (2.18) t(121.19) = -3.74 ***
 Delinquency severity mean (SD) 2.50 (1.37) 2.30 (1.39) 3.07 (1.15) t(183.04) = -5.03 ***
Previous convictions      
 Criminal conviction [% yes (n)] 47.5% (168) 36.9% (93) 73.5% (75) χ2(1) = 40.75 ***
 Age at first conviction mean (SD) 13.93 (1.78) 13.91 (1.83) 13.95 (1.73) t(166) = -0.15 n.s
 Violent crime [% yes (n)] 17.5% (62) 8.7% (22) 39.2% (40) χ2(1) = 46.71 ***
 Non-violent crime [% yes (n)] 44.4% (157) 34.5% (87) 68.6% (70) χ2(1) = 34.22 ***
  1. All p-values from analyses with continuous data are adjusted for multiple comparisons using a Holm-Bonferroni sequential correction. + Mean age among N = 168 with previous conviction
  2. *** p < .001, ** p < .01, * p < .05