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Table 2 Descriptive and statistical data for the stress domains and individual stressors in youths with MD and TD youths

From: Psychosocial stressors and protective factors for major depression in youth: evidence from a case–control study

Stress domains/individual stressorsYouths with MD
(n = 100)
TD youths
(n = 101)
 % %paχ2OR95% CI for the OR
Changes at home or at school71.445.5< .00113.713.00[1.66, 5.38]
Repetition of a grade35.712.9< .00114.183.76[1.84, 7.68]
Had to change school38.19.9< .00121.805.61[2.60, 12.13]
Separation of parents47.530.7.0155.922.04[1.14, 3.64]
Death of a loved oneb14.05.9.0563.642.58[0.95, 7.01]
Death of mother3.00.0n.a.b3.087.29[0.37, 142.93]
Death of father5.03.0n.a.b0.541.72[0.40, 7.40]
Death of a close friend6.03.0n.a.b1.082.09[0.51, 8.58]
Experiences of violence51.520.4< .00120.674.14[2.20, 7.78]
Beaten up at home21.05.9.0029.804.21[1.62, 10.94]
Yelled at and insulted at home45.016.8< .00119.694.04[2.10, 7.77]
Victim of violence11.11.0.0038.9812.38[1.57, 97.80]
Victim of unwanted sexual acts9.83.0.0553.693.47[0.91, 13.24]
Delinquent behavior21.29.0.0165.802.72[1.18, 6.29]
Exercise of violence12.13.0.0155.944.46[1.22, 16.33]
In conflict with the police14.05.9.0563.642.58[0.95, 7.01]
Psychological burdens during/after pregnancy48.830.6.0136.102.16[1.17, 3.40]
Maternal postpartum depression11.15.1.1362.222.33[0.75, 7.24]
Maternal emotional distress during pregnancy43.827.6.0245.092.05[1.09, 3.82]
Presence of an affective disorder in a first-degree relative47.57.9< .00139.2310.51[4.61, 23.93]
At least one affected parent42.06.9< .00133.529.72[4.10, 23.08]
At least one affected sibling10.81.2.0106.689.94[1.21, 81.49]
Sociodemography77.058.8.0086.252.35[1.24, 4.50]
Lower secondary education of the participant18.05.0.0048.444.21[1.50, 11.85]
Migrant background of the mother11.612.1.9180.010.95[0.39, 2.33]
Migrant background of the father20.512.2.1322.271.85[0.82, 4.13]
Unemployment of the mother4.82.0.2981.082.43[0.43, 13.62]
Unemployment of the father2.62.2.8480.041.21[0.17, 8.82]
Low academic qualification of the father40.031.3.2191.511.47[0.80, 2.70]
Low academic qualification of the mother55.337.0.013c6.202.11[1.17, 3.80]
  1. MD major depression, TD typically developing, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aOriginal p-values are reported. bAs the χ2-tests for the stress domain “Death of a loved one” was non-significant, follow-up χ2-tests for the individual stressors in this domain were not conducted. cAll significant p-values withstand Bonferroni-Holm correction except the stressor “Low academic qualification of the mother”. The stress domains are bolditalic. Significant p-values are italicized