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Table 1 Demographic and other variables by gender

From: Gender differences in externalizing and internalizing problems in Singaporean children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  Female Male
Number 96 677
Age range 6–15 6–18
Mean age (SD) 8.80 (1.88) 8.76 (2.18)
Ethnicity (%within gender)
 Chinese 81.8 80.0
 Indian 9.1 7.0
 Malay 4.5 4.2
 Others 4.5 8.7
Mother’s education level (%within gender)
 Secondary education or below 52.7 61.4
 Post-secondary or above 47.3 37.4
 Others 0.0 1.2
Father’s education level (%within gender)
 Secondary education or below 48.3 54.6
 Post-secondary or above 49.4 43.4
 Others 2.3 2.1
Experienced financial problems 12.0 9.7
Psychological aggression between spouses (%within gender)
 Yell at spouse 36.9 41.3
 Refuse to talk 40.5 35.4
 Cry 15.5 9.5
 Insult or swear 3.6 3.6
 Threaten to hit or injure spouse 1.2 1.3
Physical punishment (%within gender)
 Spank with your hand 32.2 35.5
 Cane or hit with an object 41.1 43.9
 Shake or shove 2.2 1.9
History of family member(s) seeing a psychiatrist (%within gender) 8.0 12.9