Skip to main content

Table 1 Frequency characteristics of the study population

From: Maternal temperament and character: associations to child behavior at the age of 3 years

Variable N (%)
N = 1432
Median/range or M/SD
Control variables   
EPDS 1422 4/0–22
Life events 1426 4.42/2.62
Family status 3 years 1405  
 Divorced 141 (8.2 %)  
Maternal employment status 3 years 1418  
 Unemployed 146 (8.5 %)  
Parental immigration status 1428  
 One or both parents born abroad 163  
Temperament dimensions   
Novelty seeking (NS) 1416 10/0–19
Harm aviodance (HA) 1416 7/0–20
Reward dependence (RD) 1416 10/1–15
Persistence (PS) 1416 2/0–5
Character dimensions   
Self-directedness (SD) 1416 21/3–25
Cooperativeness (CO) 1416 22/8–25
Self-transcendence (ST) 1416 4/0–15
Dependent variables   
CBCL internalizing 1428 3/0–23
CBCL externalizing 1428 7/0–34
  1. EPDS  Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, CBCL Child Behaviour Checklist, CO  cooperativeness, HA  harm avoidance, NS novelty seeking, PS  persistence, RD  reward dependence, SD self directedness, ST  self transcendence