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Table 2 Maternal temperament traits predicting child externalizing problems in the total population and boys and girls respectively. Linear regression

From: Maternal temperament and character: associations to child behavior at the age of 3 years

  Total population Boys Girls
Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value
Maternal temperament trait     
Novelty seeking (NS) 0.18 (0.08–0.29) 0.001 0.10 (− 0.06–0.25) 0.214 0.27 (0.12–0.42) < 0.001
 EPDS 2.12 (1.02–3.23) < 0.001 1.37 (− 0.22–2.96) 0.091 3.02 (1.50–4.54) < 0.001
 Life events 4.35 (2.97–5.74) < 0.001 6.23 (4.39–8.06) < 0.001 1.17 (− 0.95–3.29) 0.278
 Divorce 0.10 (− 1.09–1.28) 0.875 − 0.03 (− 1.71–1.65) 0.971 0.10 (− 1.55–1.75) 0.904
 Unemployment 2.77 (1.58–3.95) < 0.001 2.04 (0.45–3.63) 0.012 3.85 (2.07–5.63) < 0.001
 Parental immigration 0.22 (− 1.05–1.49) 0.734 0.04 (− 1.59–1.67) 0.960 0.08 (− 2.00–2.16) 0.938
Harm avoidance (HA) 0.19 (0.11–0.27) < 0.001 0.28 (0.16–0.39) < 0.001 0.11 (0.00–0.22) 0.050
 EPDS 1.52 (0.40–2.65) 0.008 0.61 (− 0.98–2.21) 0.453 2.61 (1.04–4.18) 0.001
 Life events 4.46 (3.08–5.84) < 0.001 6.28 (4.47–8.08) < 0.001 1.33 (− 0.81–3.46) 0.223
 Divorce 0.03 (− 1.15–1.21) 0.961 0.05 (− 1.60–1.70) 0.956 0.03 (− 1.63–1.70) 0.968
 Unemployment 2.80 (1.62–3.98) < 0.001 1.95 (0.39–3.52) 0.015 3.93 (2.14–5.72) < 0.001
 Parental immigration 0.20 (− 1.06–1.47) 0.753 0.10 (− 1.50–1.71) 0.902 0.14 (− 1.96–2.24) 0.895
Reward dependence (RD) − 0.04 (− 0.18–0.09) 0.539 − 0.08 (− 0.28– 0.13) 0.457 − 0.02 (− 0.20– 0.16) 0.826
 EPDS 2.11 (1.00–3.23) < 0.001 1.41 (− 0.19–3.00) 0.084 2.97 (1.43–4.51) < 0.001
 Life events 4.44 (3.05–5.83) < 0.001 6.27 (4.43–8.11) < 0.001 1.31 (− 0.83–3.45) 0.228
 Divorce − 0.02 (− 1.17–1.21) 0.972 − 0.08 (− 1.76–1.59) 0.922 0.08 (− 1.60–1.75) 0.929
 Unemployment 2.80 (1.61–3.99) < 0.001 2.08 (0.49–3.68) 0.010 3.88 (2.09–5.68) < 0.001
 Parental immigration 0.19 (− 1.08–1.47) 0.765 − 0.01 (− 1.64–1.62) 0.987 0.22 (− 1.88–2.33) 0.836
Persistence (PS) 0.01 (− 0.23–0.25) 0.919 − 0.17 (− 0.51–0.17) 0.323 0.23 (− 0.11–0.56) 0.185
 EPDS 2.09 (0.97–3.21) < 0.001 1.44 (− 0.16–3.04) 0.077 2.89 (1.35–4.43) < 0.001
 Life events 4.43 (3.03–5.82) < 0.001 6.33 (4.49–8.18) < 0.001 1.25 (− 0.89–3.39) 0.252
 Divorce − 0.01 (− 1.20–1.18) 0.989 − 0.04 (− 1.72–1.64) 0.964 0.07 (− 1.60–1.74) 0.933
 Unemployment 2.79 (1.60–3.98) < 0.001 2.09 (0.50–3.68) 0.010 3.87 (2.08–5.67) < 0.001
 Parental immigration 0.20 (− 1.08–1.47) 0.762 0.04 (− 1.60–1.67) 0.963 0.28 (− 1.83–38) 0.797
  1. CI  confidence interval, EPDS  Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Multivariate linear regression. Dependent variables: CBCL externalizing scores. Independent variables: Maternal temperamental traits, EPDS, life events, divorce, unemployment, parental immigration status