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Table 1 Selected studies on WISC profiles in children with CTD (including TS) OCD and/or ADHD

From: WISC-IV performance of children with Chronic Tic Disorder, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: results from a German clinical study

  Study Instrument Age (in years) Country Selected results focusing WISC scores/ profiles in ADHD, OCC and CTD
Frazier et al. [40] Meta-analysis on 123 studies WISC-III, WISC-R Different Different Effect sizes for FSIQ were significantly different between ADHD and healthy subjects (weighted d = .61); VIQ (d = .67) and PIQ (d = .58) were significantly sensitive to ADHD
Moura et al. [68] Children with (n = 98) and without (n = 81) ADHD matched by age and gender WISC-III 6–12 Portugal Significant index scores discrepancies between subjects with ADHD and control group in FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ; FDI showed the highest diagnostic accuracy to discriminate children with ADHD
Theiling et al. [66] Adults with (n = 116) and without (n = 116) ADHD, randomly matched controls WAIS-IV 16–71 Germany Adults with ADHD show significant decrements in subtests WMI and PSI, and a higher GAI in comparison with the FSIQ; deficits can also be found in adults with ADHD and WAIS-IV reliability differentiates between patients and controls
Schmidtendorf et al. [35] Children and adolescents (n = 433) with AD(H)D, children and adolescents with anxiety or other emotional disorder (N = 41) WISC-IV 6–16.5 Germany Significant deficit in PSI in total sample and also in subsample cleared for comorbidities (N = 117), WMI deficits seem to occur only if comorbid disorders are present
Similar profiles of the AD(H)D-only and clinical control group
Beers et al. [46] Unmedicated subjects with OCD (n = 21), matched controls (n = 21) WISC-III OCD: 12.3 (2.9)
controls:12.2 (2.9)
USA No cognitive deficits in Digit Span and Block Design in subjects with OCD
Hagberg et al. [34] Subjects with ASD a/o ADHD (n = 40), n = 21 subjects from the community WISC-III 6.4–9.9 Sweden FSIQ was lower than population norms and similar across diagnostic groups (ASD, ADHD) and settings (clinic, community)
Walg et al. [38] Male subjects with AD(H)D (n = 50), male subjects with other mental disorder (n = 54) WISC-IV 7–16 Germany Significant lower PSI in subjects with AD(H)D vs. controls
Calhoun and Mayers [32] Subjects with ADHD (n = 431), ADD (n = 134) and other diagnoses WISC-III 6–16 USA PSI and FDI scores in subjects with AD(H)D below the group mean and lower than VCI and POI
Khalifa et al. [20] Children with TS from the general population (n = 25) WISC-III 7–15 Sweden High variation in WISC-III profiles of subjects with TS (VCI,FDI,PSI were 2.5–5 points below the average)
Mayers and Calhoun [47] Comparison of n = 586 WISC-III profiles and n = 118 WISC-IV profiles of subjects with ADHD and normal intelligence WISC-III, WISC-IV 6–16 USA Significant lower FDI,WMI,PSI than VCI and POI/PRI in subjects with ADHD; similar profiles of WISC-III and WISC-IV
Rizzo et al. [4] Subjects with TS only (n = 20), ADHD only (n = 20), TS+ADHD (n = 20, controls (n = 20) WISC-R 6–16 Italy No significant differences in FSIQ,VIQ,PIQ between TS-only and controls
Significant lower FSIQ,VIQ,PIQ in subjects with ADHD-only and TS+ADHD as compared to controls
Debes et al. [33] Subjects with TS and comorbid ADHD and/or OCD (n = 266), healthy matched controls n = 80 WISC-III 10–16 Denmark Lower IQ scores in subjects with TS compared to controls and the general population, except for children with TS+OCD who scored higher in FSIQ
de Groot et al. [45] Children with TS (92) grouped by the presence and absence of OCD and/or AHDH: TS (n = 34), TS+OCD (n = 14), TS+ADHD (n = 23), TS+OCD+ADHD (n = 21) WISC-R WAIS-R 6–18 Canada Significant group effect for FSIQ TS > TS+OCD
VIQ and PIQ significant multivariate effect and significant univariate effect for VIQ (TS > TS+OCD, TS+OCD+ADHD)
Schuerholz et al. [43] TS only (n = 21), TS + ADHD (n = 19), TS ± ADHS (ADHS status not strongly confirmed, n = 25), unaffected siblings (n = 27) WISC-R 6–14 North America Higher FSIQ in TS-only as compared to TS+ADHD and unaffected siblings (wide variance of FSIQ scores)
Shin et al. [36] Subjects with OCD (n = 17), TD (n = 21), ADHD (n = 25), Depression (n = 20), healthy controls (n = 23) WISC-R 6–16 Korea Significant lower FSIQ,VIQ,PIQ in clinical groups vs. controls (all groups within the average range)
Subjects with OCD tended to have higher VIQ than subjects with TD, ADHD and depression, lower PIQ in OCD than in TD and depression
Termine et al. [37] Unmedicated male subjects with TS (n = 13), TS+ADHD (n = 8), ADHD (n = 39), controls healthy (n = 66) WISC-III 6–15 Italy Significant lower scores in components of the PIQ and VIQ (Block Design, Vocabulary) in TS a/o ADHD as compared to healthy controls
Yeates and Bornstein [39] Subjects with TS (n = 46), TS+ADHD (n = 36) WISC-R 6–18 USA Subjects with TS+ADHD did not differ from subjects with TS-only in FSIQ,VIQ,PIQ
  1. CTD: Chronic Tic Disorder; TD: Tic Disorder; TS: Tourette syndrome; OCD: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder; AD(H)D: Attention-Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder; WSIC-III: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition; WISC-IV: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition; WISC-R: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Revised; FSIQ: Full Scale Intelligence Quotient; VIQ: Verbal Intelligence Quotient; PIQ: Performance Intelligence Quotient; VCI: Verbal Comprehension Index; PRI: Perceptual Reasoning Index; WMI: Working Memory Index; PSI: Processing Speed Index; FDI: Freedom From Distractibility; POI: Perceptual Organization Index; PRI: Perceptual Reasoning Index