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Table 3 Health status and healthcare access characteristics according to the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire scores (SDQ)

From: Association between psychosocial functioning, health status and healthcare access of asylum seekers and refugee children: a population-based cross-sectional study in a German federal state

    SDQ Total Difficulties score
n (%) mean (sd) Median (IQR)
Health status
 General Health Very Good/Good 62 (72.1) 11.48 (5.24) 11.58 (5.76)
Fair/Bad/Very Bad 24 (27.9) 13.94 (8.53) 13.00 (11.25)
 Any long-lasting illness (child) (missings = 5) Yes 22 (25.9) 15.33 (7.59) 13.00 (9.66)
No 63 (74.1) 11.01 (5.57) 11.00 (6.00)*
 Has the child been limited because of a health problem? (missings = 12) limited (severe or not) 29 (37.2) 14.66 (7.77) 13.00 (8.92)
not limited 49 (62.8) 11.04 (5.24) 11.11 (6.50)*
 Bodily pain during past year? (missings = 3) None 45 (51.7) 10.38 (5.51) 10.58 (6.83)
Some 42 (48.3) 13.74 (6.64) 13.00 (7.34)*
Healthcare utilization
 Last time visited a Paediatrician
(missings = 17)
Less than 12 months 45 (61.6) 13.00 (6.30) 12.00 (6.07)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know 28 (38.4) 10.64 (6.92) 11.00 (10.54)
 Last time visited a Specialist
(missings = 33)
Less than 12 months 16 (28.1) 15.48 (8.60) 13.67 (11.44)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know 41 (71.9) 10.81 (5.63) 11.00 (6.50)
 Last time visited a Dentist
(missings = 24)
Less than 12 months 26 (39.4) 13.06 (5.90) 12.50 (8.03)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know 40 (60.6) 11.80 (7.23) 11.79 (8.39)
 Last time visited a Psychologist, psychotherapist or psychiatrist
(missings = 33)
Less than 12 months 5 (8.8) 23.07 (8.21) 21.33 (14.67)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know 52 (91.2) 10.93 (5.67) 11.06 (6.00)*
 During past 4 weeks has your child used any medicines prescribed by a doctor? (missings = 5) Yes 43 (50.6) 12.83 (6.65) 13.00 (6.79)
No 42 (49.4) 11.35 (6.08) 11.06 (5.93)
 Has your child been in hospital inpatient last 12 months? (missings = 5) Yes 14 (16.5) 13.86 (9.08) 11.71 (10.36)
No/Don’t know 71 (83.5) 12.01 (5.59) 12.00 (6.58)
 Emergency department visit last 12 months (missings = 7) Yes 16 (19.3) 14.16 (7.65) 12.50 (7.86)
No/Don’t know 67 (80.7) 11.75 (6.09) 12.00 (7.00)
Unmet medical need
 Unmet need for a paediatrician during past year? (missings = 15) Yes 18 (24.0) 14.41 (6.99) 13.00 (8.25)
No 57 (76.0) 11.64 (5.84) 11.58 (6.79)
 Unmet need for a specialist during the past year? (missings = 14) Yes 13 (24.1) 16.07 (6.64) 17.33 (8.53)
No 63 (75.9) 11.62 (6.21) 11.43 (6.00)*
 Reduction on spending on essential needs, such as food or clothing, to be able to cover healthcare costs for the child? (missings = 9) Yes 18 (22.8) 14.08 (7.33) 13.67 (8.40)
No 61 (77.2) 11.75 (6.05) 12.00 (6.37)
  1. SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, sd standard deviation, IQR Interquartile Range
  2. *p < 0.05 for the Kruskal–Wallis or Mann–Whitney test comparing median scores