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Table 4 Associations between the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores (SDQ—normal vs. borderline or abnormal range) and the health status and healthcare utilization characteristics

From: Association between psychosocial functioning, health status and healthcare access of asylum seekers and refugee children: a population-based cross-sectional study in a German federal state

   SDQ Total > 13 Borderline
or Abnormal, n = 38
SDQ emotional > 4, n = 34 SDQ conduct > 4, n = 10
OR
(95% CI)
AOR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
AOR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
AOR
(95% CI)
Health status
 General Health Fair / Bad / Very Bad (Ref = Very Good / Good) 1.75 (0.68–4.52) 1.94 (0.69–5.40) 2.31 (0.88–6.03) 2.00 (0.69–5.76) 4.83 (1.23–19.04) * 4.59 (1.09–19.37) *
 Any long-lasting illness (child) (missings = 5) Yes (Ref = No) 2.35 (0.87–6.32) 2.74 (0.88–8.59) 6.67 (2.25–19.75) * 5.25 (1.57–17.55) * 3.41 (0.88–13.19) 3.97 (0.78–20.26)
 Has the child been limited because of a health problem? (missings = 12) limited (severe or not) (Ref = not limited) 2.44 (0.95–6.25) 2.67 (0.96–7.42) 4.75 (1.77–12.72) * 4.28 (1.49–12.27) * 1.83 (0.48–6.97) 1.56 (0.39–6.19)
 Bodily pain during past year? (missings = 3) Some (Ref = None) 2.98 (1.23–7.23)* 3.14 (1.21–8.10)* 2.24 (0.92–5.42) 3.00 (1.10–8.22) * 10.35 (1.24–86.81) * 10.30 (1.21–87.56) *
Healthcare utilization
 Last time visited a Paediatrician
(missings = 17)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know (Ref = Less than 12 months) 0.58 (0.22–1.53) 0.43 (0.15–1.27) 0.25 (0.08–0.77) * 0.23 (0.07–0.78) * 1.33 (0.33–5.46) 1.53 (0.35–6.60)
 Last time visited a Specialist
(missings = 33)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know (Ref = Less than 12 months) 0.35 (0.11–1.14) 0.40 (0.11–1.37) 0.22 (0.07–0.75) * 0.16 (0.04–0.69) * 0.42 (0.10–1.81) 0.52 (0.11–2.53)
 Last time visited a Dentist
(missings = 24)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know (Ref = Less than 12 months) 0.82 (0.30–2.20) 0.85 (0.27–2.69) 0.56 (0.20–1.55) 1.01 (0.31–3.27) 1.63 (0.38–6.96) 1.89 (0.39–9.12)
 Last time visited a Psychologist, psychotherapist or psychiatrist
(missings = 33)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know (Ref = Less than 12 months) 0.11 (0.01–1.07) 0.11 (0.01–1.33) 0.20 (0.03–1.42) 0.12 (0.08–1.65)
 During past 4 weeks has your child used any medicines prescribed by a doctor? (missings = 5) No (Ref = Yes) 0.44 (0.18–1.05) 0.38 (0.14–1.00) 0.77 (0.32–1.85) 0.38 (0.13–1.10) 1.03 (0.27–3.84) 0.94 (0.23–3.89)
 Has your child been in hospital inpatient last 12 months? (missings = 5) No/Don’t know (Ref = Yes) 1.09 (0.34–3.48) 1.29 (0.39–4.33) 0.87 (0.27–2.77) 0.98 (0.28–3.49) 0.40 (0.09–1.79) 0.48 (0.10–2.22)
 Emergency department visit last 12 months (missings = 7) No/Don’t know (Ref = Yes) 0.76 (0.26–2.28) 0.72 (0.23–2.20) 0.34 (0.11–1.04) 0.27 (0.08–0.96) * 0.95 (0.18–4.97) 1.00 (0.19–5.33)
Unmet medical need
 Unmet need for a paediatrician during past year? (missings = 15) Yes (Ref = No) 2.50 (0.84–7.42) 2.11 (0.66–6.82) 1.37 (0.47–4.02) 1.29 (0.38–4.44) 0.89 (0.17–4.74) 0.63 (0.11–3.71)
 Unmet need for a specialist during the past year? (missings = 14) Yes (Ref = No) 5.42 (1.35–21.68) * 4.57 (1.09–19.16) * 0.95 (0.28–3.24) 1.21 (0.32–4.64) 2.85 (0.61–13.30) 3.16 (0.62–16.00)
 Reduction on spending on essential needs, such as food or clothing, to be able to cover healthcare costs for the child? (missings = 9) Yes (Ref = No) 3.08 (1.02–9.32) * 2.68 (0.84–8.50) 1.93 (0.67–5.57) 1.78 (0.55–5.72) 3.20 (0.76–13.50) 2.97 (0.66–13.39)
   SDQ peer > 4, n = 35 SDQ hyperactive > 6, n = 22 SDQ Prosocial < 6, n = 10
OR
(95% CI)
AOR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
AOR
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
AOR
(95% CI)
Health status
 General Health Fair / Bad / Very Bad (Ref = Very Good / Good) 2.15 (0.83–5.59) 2.20 (0.77–6.24) 1.29 (0.45–3.71) 1.75 (0.56–5.41) 1.12 (0.27–4.75) 1.45 (0.29–7.22)
 Any long-lasting illness (child) (missings = 5) Yes (Ref = No) 4.96 (1.74–14.13) * 5.14 (1.53–17.21) * 0.86 (0.27–2.72) 1.22 (0.34–4.40) 1.26 (0.30–5.38) 2.00 (0.34–11.99)
 Has the child been limited because of a health problem? (missings = 12) limited (severe or not) (Ref = not limited) 3.54 (1.35–9.29) * 3.70 (1.31–10.42) * 0.65 (0.22–1.94) 0.75 (0.24–2.36) 0.83 (0.19–3.59) 0.86 (0.17–4.31)
 Bodily pain during past year? (missings = 3) Some (Ref = None) 1.23 (0.52–2.93) 1.18 (0.46–3.02) 2.07 (0.76–5.67) 2.04 (0.70–5.93) 1.08 (0.29–4.04) 0.69 (0.16–3.06)
Healthcare utilization
 Last time visited a Paediatrician
(missings = 17)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know (Ref = Less than 12 months) 0.55 (0.20–1.50) 0.41 (0.13–1.26) 1.30 (0.46–3.66) 1.10 (0.37–3.27) 2.23 (0.54–9.13) 1.93 (0.37–9.93)
 Last time visited a Specialist
(missings = 33)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know (Ref = Less than 12 months) 0.17 (0.05–0.59) * 0.14 (0.03–0.58) * 0.54 (0.16–1.85) 0.50 (0.14–1.87) 0.47 (0.09–2.38) 0.32 (0.04–2.44)
Last time visited a Dentist
(missings = 24)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know (Ref = Less than 12 months) 0.28 (0.10–0.79) * 0.29 (0.09–0.96) * 1.61 (0.52–4.95) 0.92 (0.25–3.45) 5.30 (0.61–45.93) 5.96 (0.51–70.20)
 Last time visited a Psychologist, psychotherapist or psychiatrist
(missings = 33)
Never/12 months or longer/Don´t know (Ref = Less than 12 months) 0.25 (0.04–1.63) 0.16 (0.02–1.33) 0.16 (0.02–1.19) 0.07 (0.00–1.36)
 During past 4 weeks has your child used any medicines prescribed by a doctor? (missings = 5) No (Ref = Yes) 1.04 (0.44–2.48) 0.85 (0.32–2.23) 0.81 (0.31–2.14) 1.03 (0.36–2.94) 0.26 (0.05–1.32) 0.28 (0.05–1.73)
 Has your child been in hospital inpatient last 12 months? (missings = 5) No/Don’t know (Ref = Yes) 1.32 (0.40–4.33) 1.62 (0.46–5.75) 1.34 (0.34–5.33) 1.28 (0.31–5.36) 0.40 (0.09–1.79) 0.45 (0.09–2.33)
 Emergency department visit last 12 months (missings = 7) No/Don’t know (Ref = Yes) 1.20 (0.39–3.68) 1.09 (0.34–3.51) 1.02 (0.29–3.59) 1.02 (0.28–3.63) 0.51 (0.12–2.22) 0.41 (0.08–2.06)
Unmet medical need
 Unmet need for a paediatrician during past year? (missings = 15) Yes (Ref = No) 1.59 (0.55–4.62) 1.26 (0.39–4.09) 1.54 (0.49–4.85) 1.42 (0.38–5.34) 0.89 (0.17–4.74) 0.30 (0.03–2.99)
Unmet need for a specialist during the past year? (missings = 14) Yes (Ref = No) 6.21 (1.55–24.95) * 6.02 (1.36–26.74) * 2.74 (0.80–9.43) 2.15 (0.57–8.13) 4.43 (0.86–22.82) 2.24 (0.31–16.08)
 Reduction on spending on essential needs. such as food or clothing. to be able to cover healthcare costs for the child? (missings = 9) Yes (Ref = No) 1.54 (0.54–4.44) 1.23 (0.39–3.86) 1.68 (0.53–5.29) 1.97 (0.57–6.84) 3.20 (0.76–13.50) 2.66 (0.53–13.40)
  1. OR (95%CI): Odds ratio (95% Confidence intervals); AOR: Adjusted odds ratio – adjusted for sex and age; SDQ – Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; Ref = Reference category.. *Estimate statistically significant (p < 0.05)