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Table 1 Sample description of children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (at baseline)

From: Risk and resource factors of antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents: results of the longitudinal BELLA study

  Baseline 1-year follow-up 2-year follow-up
n (%) M (SD) n M (SD) n M (SD)
Sociodemographic data 1       
 Female 583 [51]      
 Age (in years)   13.83 (1.96)     
 Socioeconomic status (possible range: 3–21)   12.27 (4.10)     
 Migration background 71 [6]      
Familial and parental risks       
 Not living with both biological parents 163 [14]      
 Parental chronic disease (at least one parent) 363 [32]      
 Parental strain (possible range: 0–4)   0.81 (0.60)     
Antisocial behaviour (possible range: 0–2) 1138 0.13 (0.18) 903 0.13 (0.17) 786 0.13 (0.17)
Comorbid mental health problems       
 Symptoms of ADHD (possible range: 0–3) 1145 0.66 (0.50) 902 0.58 (0.49) 894 0.54 (0.45)
 Depressive symptoms (possible range: 0–3) 1128 0.48 (0.33) 876 0.45 (0.32) 852 0.44 (0.35)
 Symptoms of generalised anxiety (possible range: 0–2) 1128 0.63 (0.37) 876 0.60 (0.39) 852 0.59 (0.40)
Risk factor       
 Parental mental health problems (possible range: 0–4) 1145 0.56 (0.49) 902 0.55 (0.49) 894 0.47 (0.44)
Resource factors       
 Self-efficacy (possible range: 0–3) 1128 2.14 (0.38) 875 2.16 (0.42) 852 2.18 (0.39)
 Family climate (possible range: 0–3) 1135 1.83 (0.53) 888 1.84 (0.52) 761 1.81 (0.52)
 Social support (possible range: 0–4) 1130 3.11 (0.74) 890 3.29 (0.66) 760 3.33 (0.64)
  1. 1Sociodemographic information and data on familial and parental risks were available for the complete sample under analysis (n = 1145)
  2. ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, M mean, SD standard deviation; for measures see text (Methods)