Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample description of children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (at baseline)

From: Risk and resource factors of antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents: results of the longitudinal BELLA study

 

Baseline

1-year follow-up

2-year follow-up

n (%)

M (SD)

n

M (SD)

n

M (SD)

Sociodemographic data 1

      

 Female

583 [51]

     

 Age (in years)

 

13.83 (1.96)

    

 Socioeconomic status (possible range: 3–21)

 

12.27 (4.10)

    

 Migration background

71 [6]

     

Familial and parental risks

      

 Not living with both biological parents

163 [14]

     

 Parental chronic disease (at least one parent)

363 [32]

     

 Parental strain (possible range: 0–4)

 

0.81 (0.60)

    

Antisocial behaviour (possible range: 0–2)

1138

0.13 (0.18)

903

0.13 (0.17)

786

0.13 (0.17)

Comorbid mental health problems

      

 Symptoms of ADHD (possible range: 0–3)

1145

0.66 (0.50)

902

0.58 (0.49)

894

0.54 (0.45)

 Depressive symptoms (possible range: 0–3)

1128

0.48 (0.33)

876

0.45 (0.32)

852

0.44 (0.35)

 Symptoms of generalised anxiety (possible range: 0–2)

1128

0.63 (0.37)

876

0.60 (0.39)

852

0.59 (0.40)

Risk factor

      

 Parental mental health problems (possible range: 0–4)

1145

0.56 (0.49)

902

0.55 (0.49)

894

0.47 (0.44)

Resource factors

      

 Self-efficacy (possible range: 0–3)

1128

2.14 (0.38)

875

2.16 (0.42)

852

2.18 (0.39)

 Family climate (possible range: 0–3)

1135

1.83 (0.53)

888

1.84 (0.52)

761

1.81 (0.52)

 Social support (possible range: 0–4)

1130

3.11 (0.74)

890

3.29 (0.66)

760

3.33 (0.64)

  1. 1Sociodemographic information and data on familial and parental risks were available for the complete sample under analysis (n = 1145)
  2. ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, M mean, SD standard deviation; for measures see text (Methods)