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Table 2 Predicting the initial state and change of antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents

From: Risk and resource factors of antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents: results of the longitudinal BELLA study

  Regression Model A0a predicting initial antisocial behaviour Regression Model B0b predicting change in antisocial behaviour
b β p b β p
Constant 0.13   <0.001 0.00   0.403
Sociodemographic datac      
 Female − 0.01 − 0.03 0.319 0.00 0.02 0.528
 Age (in years at baseline) 0.01 0.10 0.007 0.00 − 0.12 0.008
 Age by gender 0.00 0.02 0.616 0.00 0.01 0.852
 Socioeconomic status (at baseline) 0.00 − 0.11 <0.001 0.00 0.03 0.341
 Migration background 0.00 0.00 0.926 0.00 − 0.04 0.188
Familial and parental risks      
 Not living with both biological parents 0.04 0.09 <0.001 0.00 0.01 0.657
 Parental chronic disease (at least one parent) 0.00 − 0.01 0.872 0.00 − 0.01 0.809
 Parental strain 0.06 0.24 <0.001 − 0.01 − 0.21 <0.001
Comorbid mental health problems      
 Initial symptoms of ADHD (intercept) 0.14 0.39 <0.001 0.00 0.01 0.878
 Change in symptoms of ADHD (slope)     0.05 0.13 <0.001
 Initial depressive symptoms (intercept) 0.11 0.14 <0.001 − 0.01 − 0.03 0.396
 Change in depressive symptoms (slope)     0.00 0.00 0.939
 Initial symptoms of generalised anxiety (intercept) − 0.04 − 0.07 0.031 0.01 0.05 0.217
 Change in symptoms of generalised anxiety (slope)     − 0.01 − 0.02 0.527
Risk factor       
 Initial parental mental health problems (intercept) − 0.01 − 0.02 0.571 0.01 0.09 0.042
 Change in parental mental health problems (slope)     0.01 0.03 0.457
Resource factors       
 Initial self-efficacy (intercept) 0.03 0.06 0.038 0.00 0.00 0.974
 Change in self-efficacy (slope)     0.01 0.04 0.261
 Initial family climate (intercept) − 0.03 − 0.09 0.002 − 0.01 − 0.11 0.003
 Change in family climate (slope)     − 0.03 − 0.11 < 0.001
 Initial social support (intercept) − 0.01 − 0.02 0.475 0.01 0.11 0.005
 Change in social support (slope)     0.01 0.05 0.100
  1. ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; b unstandardised regression coefficient, β  standardised regression coefficient; for measures see text (Methods)
  2. aLinear regression Model A0 (n = 1145); model fit: adjusted R2 = 0.35; F = 42.38
  3. bLinear regression Model B0 (n = 1145); model fit: adjusted R2 = 0.07; F = 4.67
  4. cWe entered all variables simultaneously