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Table 3 Subgroup analyses of the effect of exercise on depression in adolescents

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of exercise on depression in adolescents

Variable Categories Number of comparisons
(number of participants)
Heterogeneity test results Meta-analysis results
Q value I2 value SMD effect size (95% CI) P value
Exercise type Depression Aerobic 5 (160) 6.02 35.29% − 0.59 (− 1.01, -0.17) 0.01
Whole-body muscle vibration training 1 (35)
Depressive symptoms Aerobic 7 (453) 21.70 76.91% − 0.85 (− 1.29, -0.40) < 0.01
Resistance + aerobic exercise 2 (86) 4.78 79.07% − 1.25 (− 2.40, -0.10) 0.03
Yoga 4 (471) 0.91 0% − 0.12 (− 0.30, 0.07) 0.22
Exercise program duration (weeks) Depression 6 4 (158) 5.84 47.46% − 0.61 (− 1.07, 0.15) 0.01
9–12 2 (37) 0.18 0% − 0.55 (− 1.21, 0.11) 0.10
Depressive symptoms 8 4 (204) 2.79 0% − 0.82 (− 1.11, -0.52) < 0.01
10–12 6 (375) 25.97 86.46% − 0.57 (− 1.18, 0.04) 0.07
 > 12 3 (431) 20.12 95.18% − 0.76 (− 1.73, 0.21) 0.12
Exercise session duration (min) Depression 30 4 (119) 2.72 0% − 0.76 (− 1.13, -0.38) < 0.01
45 2 (76) 0.04 0% − 0.21 (− 0.67, 0.24) 0.35
Depressive symptoms 30–45 6 (466) 25.32 87.31% − 0.58 (-1.18,0.01) 0.06
75–120 5 (460) 26.51 87.84% − 0.80 (− 1.38, -0.21) 0.01
Exercise frequency (sessions/week) Depression 3 4 (126) 5.80 48.59% − 0.58 (-1.11, -0.05)
)
0.03
4 2 (69) 0.03 0% − 0.60 (-1.08, -0.12) 0.01
Depressive symptoms 2 3 (420) 0.49 0% − 0.10 (-0.29, 0.10) 0.33
3 10 (590) 3.74 76.47% − 0.87 (-1.25, -0.49)  < 0.01
Exercise intensity Depression Moderate 1 (24)
Self-selected 1 (65)
Depressive symptoms Moderate 2 (69) 1.39 28.18% − 1.59 (-2.24, -0.94) < 0.01
High 2 (84) 0.06 0 − 0.65 (-1.08, -0.21) < 0.01