Prevalence of psychiatric disorders, comorbidity patterns, and repeat offending among male juvenile detainees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
© The Author(s) 2017
Received: 25 May 2016
Accepted: 5 January 2017
Published: 18 January 2017
High rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities have been reported in juvenile detainees, and both phenomena are thought to contribute to repeat offending. However, research on this topic has been limited in Asian countries, like South Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, comorbidity patterns, and the relationship between psychiatric disorders and repeat offending among a cross-section of youths detained in a male juvenile detention center in South Korea.
One hundred seventy-three juvenile detainees were recruited. The distribution of psychiatric disorders within the sample was estimated by applying criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. Logistic regression was used to assess significant comorbidity patterns and relationships between psychiatric disorders and repeat offending.
In all, 90.8% of the detainees had at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and 75.1% had psychiatric comorbidities. The most common psychiatric disorder was alcohol use disorder, followed by conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Among the comorbidities present, alcohol use disorder with disruptive behavior disorder was the most common combination. The presence of two psychiatric disorders was associated with a higher rate of recidivism, and alcohol use disorder was also associated with repeat offending when combined with disruptive behavior disorders, but not with anxiety disorders, major depression, or psychotic disorders.
Juvenile detainees evidence high rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities. Assessment of and intervention in psychiatric disorders, especially alcohol use disorder and comorbid alcohol use disorder with disruptive behavior disorders, may help prevent further offenses.
KeywordsJuvenile detainees Psychiatric disorder Alcohol use disorder Comorbidity Repeat offending
Many studies have reported high rates of psychiatric disorders in juvenile detainees. Previous studies have reported that 40 to 90% of juvenile detainees have at least one psychiatric disorder [1–6], which accounts for about a three- to four-fold increase in the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses compared to the general population [7–9]. Some psychiatric disorders in youths, like conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorder (SUD), are thought to be related to more severe antisocial behavior, more violent offending, and increased criminal behavior in adulthood [10, 11]. Screening and recognition of mental problems in juvenile offenders may help identify risk factors for continued criminal behavior, facilitate treatment, and eventually lead to more positive outcomes . However, the proportion of detainees who receive proper screening or intervention for mental health problems is small in South Korea. To promote awareness of this issue, the magnitude of the psychiatric problems experienced by juvenile offenders must be investigated via epidemiological research.
Although extensive research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in juvenile offenders has been conducted in Western countries, epidemiological research concerning this issue is limited in South Korea. A Chinese study reported that 80.2% of male detainees met criteria for any psychiatric disorder, and 38.8% were diagnosed with at least two disorders . A study of juvenile offenders in Malaysian prisons demonstrated that almost all offenders had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder . A previous study targeting 1155 juvenile detainees in South Korea reported high rates of depression, paranoia, antisocial personality, and hypomania using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent (MMPI-A) scale . However, no study has yet estimated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in juvenile detainees in South Korea using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD) .
Comorbidity is common among juvenile offenders [1, 3, 16–18]. The reported comorbidity rate ranges from 20 to 63%, and several studies have shown that SUD plus disruptive behavioral disorders (DBDs) is the most common comorbidity combination [3, 17]. However, the detailed profile of comorbidity patterns among juvenile detainees is unclear, as some studies have focused on only a few selected disorders, like depression or SUDs [16, 19–21]. Others combined psychiatric disorders into broader categories, like internalizing disorders, SUDs, or DBDs [3, 20]. Furthermore, the patterns of comorbidity among juvenile offenders have not been studied in Asian countries like South Korea .
The assessment of psychiatric disorders and comorbidity patterns among juvenile offenders is important, as both are thought to be linked to repeat offending. Various studies have studied the association between psychiatric disorders and repeat offending [21–25], but the specific disorders that predicted repeat offending differed among studies, and positive findings were reported with regard to SUDs , affective disorders , oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) , and CD [21, 25]. Some of these previous studies did not take into account comorbidity [24, 25], and this may have affected the results, considering the high rate of comorbid disorders. McReynolds and colleagues reported that SUDs and DBDs, along with their comorbidity, predicted repeat offending . Anxiety disorder predicted repeat offending only when it was comorbid with DBDs, and affective disorders were associated with repeat offending only when combined with SUDs in males . However, this study used broad diagnostic grouping categories and did not investigate individual psychiatric disorders. Other studies have also reported that psychiatric comorbidity predicted criminal repeat offending, but there was no information regarding which psychiatric comorbidity combination contributed to these results [22, 26].
We conducted this cross-sectional study to answer three research questions. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and the second was to determine the comorbidity patterns in juvenile detainees in South Korea. We further examined the relationship between psychiatric disorders and repeat offending, as well as the association between specific psychiatric comorbidity patterns and repeat offending.
Demographic and judicial characteristics of detainees
(n = 173)
Age (years), mean (SD)
School drop- out, N (%)
Yearly family income > $25,000, N (%)
Paternal education ≥ college education, N (%)
Maternal education ≥ college education, N (%)
Living arrangements, N (%)
With both parents
With a single parent
Recidivism, N (%)
Type of index offense, N (%)
Obstruction of justice
Written informed consent was obtained from the participants and guardians (in case of participants under the age of 18) after they were provided with a sufficient explanation of the study. This study protocol was approved by Sanggye Paik Hospital’s institutional review board (IRB No. SGPAIK 2015-06-022-002).
The psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which is a short, structured psychiatric interview that can detect a wide range of DSM-IV and ICD-10 psychiatric disorders . The MINI consists of 19 modules that explore 17 Axis I of the DSM-IV disorders, as well as the risks of suicide and antisocial personality disorder. It has been validated against structured interviews including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the World Health Organization-designed Composite International Diagnostic Interview [27, 28]. The MINI has shown fair inter-rater reliability, in that all kappa values were >0.75; it also has demonstrated good test–retest reliability, in that 61% of the kappa values were >0.75 . It has been applied to the assessment of psychiatric disorders in various criminal justice settings [29, 30]. The Korean version has well-established validity and reliability . The interview was conducted by clinical psychologists with a master’s degree after 4 h of training on the administration of MINI.
Psychiatric disorders were grouped into broader categories for analyses: DBDs (CD, ODD, ADHD), SUDs (alcohol use disorder and other SUDs), and any anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder). Psychotic disorders and major depression did not belong to any category and were included in analyses individually.
Demographic data (age, school drop-out, annual family income, parental education, living arrangements) and judicial data (type of crime, recidivism) was collected using self-report questionnaires. Repeat offending was defined as conviction of any type of criminal offense more than once. The type of index offense was defined according to the criminal law and special laws of South Korea. Property crimes include theft, fraud and embezzlement. Violent crimes include robbery, physical assaults, and blackmailing.
Descriptive statistics were used to summarize participants’ demographic and judicial characteristics, and to estimate the prevalence of each psychiatric disorder.
A series of logistic regression analyses was conducted between diagnostic categories to identify comorbidity patterns. We adjusted for covariates that were found to be significantly associated with having comorbidities (p < 0.1) in univariate regression models. Potential covariates included age (continuous variable), socioeconomic status (SES; annual income of more than $25,000 or less than $25,000), maternal and paternal education level (having a college education or more or having less than a college education), school drop-out status (yes or no), living situation (living with no parent or with at least one parent), and violent crime commission (yes or no). Covariates were added to hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models.
The relationship between number of psychiatric disorders and repeat offending was analyzed using logistic regression. The association between each psychiatric disorder and repeat offending was also analyzed by applying logistic regression. Univariate regression was used to investigate the association between repeat offending and the potential covariates that have been previously mentioned. Covariates that showed a significant association (p < 0.1) were further added to the hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models (covariates in block 1, psychiatric disorder in block 2).
None of the multivariate linear regression models revealed multicollinearity (defined as variance inflation factor, VIF > 5) among the independent variables, and goodness-of-fit was evaluated using the Hosmer–Lemeshow test.
We further investigated the relationships between specific comorbidity patterns and repeat offending rates using logistic regression analyses. As there were many patterns of comorbidity, we selected the psychiatric disorder (s) that was (were) found to be significantly associated with repeat offending in the previous analyses, and analyzed the association of the various comorbidity patterns of this disorder (s) with repeat offending. Repeat offending was the dependent variable, and subgroups defined by dividing the detainees according to comorbidity pattern (e.g. alcohol use disorder + DHD, alcohol use disorder without ADHD, ADHD without alcohol use disorder, others) were entered as independent variables. The models were further adjusted for covariates that were found to be associated with repeat offending in the previous analyses.
All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 22.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), and a two-tailed p value < 0.01 (0.05/5 diagnostic categories) was considered significant.
Comorbidity patterns across psychiatric diagnoses
DBD, N (%)
AOR (95% CI)
AOR (95% CI)
AOR (95% CI)
AOR (95% CI)
AOR (95% CI)
Adjusted odds ratios for repeat offending according to psychiatric disorder
OR (95% CI)
AORa (95% CI)
1 psychiatric disorder
2 psychiatric disorders
3 or more psychiatric disorders
Any anxiety disorder
Adjusted odds ratios for repeat offending in alcohol use disorder according to comorbidity
OR (95% CI)
AORa (95% CI)
AUD and CD
AUD+ CD (n = 66)
AUD only (n = 34)
CD only (n = 30)
Without AUD and/or CD
AUD and ADHD
AUD+ ADHD (n = 38)
AUD (n = 62)
ADHD (n = 23)
With AUD and/or ADHD
AUD and DBD
AUD+ DBD (n = 80)
AUD only (n = 20)
DBD only (n = 43)
Without AUD and/or DBD
AUD and psychotic disorder
AUD+ Psychotic disorder (n = 14)
AUD only (n = 86)
Psychotic disorder only (n = 5)
Without AUD and/or psychotic disorder
AUD and anxiety disorder
AUD+ anxiety (n = 26)
AUD only (n = 74)
Anxiety only (n = 18)
Without AUD and/or anxiety disorder
AUD and major depression
AUD+ major depression (n = 64)
2.18 (0.45, 10.61)
2.14 (0.43, 10.60)
AUD only (n = 36)
3.73 (1.13, 12.33)
Major depression only (n = 28)
0.66 (0.12, 3.65)
0.38 (0.06, 2.52)
Without AUD and/or major depression
This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, comorbidity patterns, and their relationships with repeat offending in juvenile detainees in South Korea. There was a high rate of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities among the juvenile detainee population, as is the case with Western countries [2, 3]. The percentage of detainees with at least one psychiatric disorder was 90.8%, and although direct comparisons are problematic due to differences in samples and measurement methods, this figure was high compared to the reported rate of 15–38% among the general adolescent population [32–34]. Similarly, the rates of alcohol use disorders and CD were much higher than those witnessed in the general population, as a national cohort in the US reported lifetime rates of 11.8 and 13.2% for alcohol abuse and dependence in adolescence, respectively, and a meta-analysis of 47 studies reported a 2.1% prevalence rate for CD [35, 36]. In addition, as was the case in previous studies, these two were the most common disorders [2, 6]. Compared with a meta-analysis of 3401 male adolescents sampled from studies from 10 different countries (United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, the Netherlands, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Austria and Finland), our study reported a higher prevalence of ADHD (35.3 vs 13.5%) and psychotic disorders (11 vs 1.4%), and a lower prevalence of SUDs other than alcohol use disorder (4.6 vs 45.8%) . This may be due to differences in the study population in terms of diagnostic tools (self-reported questionnaires vs. interviews), diagnostic criteria (DSM-III-R vs. DSM-IV), sample size, race, and age range. The low rate of SUDs other than alcohol use disorder matches the findings of , who reported the lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use among the general Korean adolescent population to be 0.4%, which was much lower than the observed rate among adolescents in other countries [38, 39].
Comorbidity seems to be the rule, rather than the exception, in justice settings [40, 41]. Psychiatric professionals in the judicial system should be aware of the significant comorbidity patterns, and look for one when another is present (e.g. look for anxiety disorders when a DBD is present). The combination of alcohol use disorders and DBDs was the most common comorbidity combination observed in previous studies [3, 14] as well as in this one. The comorbidity of SUDs and CD has been well-studied, as some genetic studies suggest a heritable risk of substance abuse in families with antisocial personality disorder and adoption studies have also reported a greater risk of SUDs in individuals with CD . As comorbid CD and SUD is related to more severe antisocial behavior and more violent offending [10, 11], clinicians should be aware of this potentially dangerous combination.
Alcohol use disorder was not significantly comorbid with major depression. This result is inconsistent with previous studies that reported significant associations between major depression and SUDs, including alcohol use disorder . The non-significant association may be partially explained by the exclusion of female detainees in this study, as affective disorders and SUD may be more strongly linked in females than in males . The stronger association between affective disorders and SUD in females compared with males may be due to the decreased reliability of reported depressive symptoms in males . Nevertheless, as comorbid depression and SUDs may lead to more substance dependence, an increased number of substances used regularly, and an increase in the incidence of suicide planning, the detection and treatment of both conditions is important for improving treatment outcomes [44, 45].
Repeat offending was associated with the presence of psychiatric comorbidities. Among the individual psychiatric disorders, only alcohol use disorder showed a nominally significant association with repeat offending. When looking at the comorbidity patterns with alcohol use disorders, there was a significant association when alcohol use disorders were combined with DBDs. However, there was no significant association when alcohol use disorders were combined with ADHD, anxiety disorders, major depression, and psychotic disorders. McReynolds et al. reported a significant association between repeat offending and SUDs plus DBDs, which matches the results of this study, but they also reported that SUDs plus affective disorders increase repeated offending, which disagrees with the present results. However, direct comparisons between study results are difficult, as McReynolds study used the category of affective disorders, but we only investigated the combination with major depression, as the rate of hypomania and mania was very high in our data set . Indeed, the high prevalence of hypomanic and manic episodes in our sample may have been caused by confusion between these phenomena and ADHD.
Contrary to previous studies, not any psychiatric disorder belonging to the DBD category increased repeat offending . There have been controversial results regarding the relationship between ODD or ADHD and repeat offending, but many results have reported a positive relationship between CD and repeat offending [46, 47]. The discrepancy with our results may be due to differences in sample size, the definition of repeat offending, or the types of crime included. Other factors could be under-reporting by juvenile detainees or under-detection of repeat offenses by the police. Cohn et al. reported similar results, in that they found no relationship between persistent offending and ODD/CD . As the development of conduct problems is influenced by temperament and environmental factors, the frequency of conduct problems can vary according to temporary changes in the environment . However, DBDs were significantly related to repeat offending when comorbid with alcohol use disorders. This finding suggests that the assessment of comorbidity patterns, not only single psychiatric disorders, is important for the prediction of repeat offending. As repeat offending was assessed in a retrospective manner, a causal relationship cannot be determined and further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.
The practice parameters for youths in juvenile detention and correctional facilities developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) recommended that all youth receive screening at entrance and continued monitoring for mental problems . In South Korea, the resources for providing services for the identification of and intervention in the psychiatric problems experienced by juvenile offenders are limited. Regarding treatment, currently there is only one medical protection facility for juvenile offenders in South Korea that can provide psychiatric treatment. Furthermore, this facility accommodates only 60 patients at once and there is no full-time board-certified psychiatrist present. As juvenile offenders often come from deprived backgrounds, with little access to and use of healthcare in the community, opportunities for intervention in the juvenile justice system have the potential to make a significant impact on public health terms [49, 50]. As this study shows, there is a high rate of psychiatric disorders among those in the juvenile justice system of South Korea, and development of assessment protocols and intervention programs is necessary.
This study has some noteworthy limitations. The relatively small sample size may have underpowered our results. Furthermore, this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design; thus, the causality between psychiatric disorders and repeat offending remains undetermined. We only included male subjects, as the targeted juvenile detention center housed males only, and this may limit the generalizability of the results to both genders within the juvenile justice system. Likewise, because we conducted the study inside the detention center, we were unable to obtain information from informants other than the detainees themselves. This may have led to the underreporting of some psychiatric symptoms, especially externalizing behaviors. We used the MINI to diagnose psychiatric disorders, but this does not fully cover child and adolescent psychiatric diagnoses. We had no information on the time spent in detention, so we were unable to consider the effects of this on psychiatric diagnoses. Finally, we only included detainees from a single detention center, and further large-scale studies using a prospective design that includes detainees from various areas and detention centers are warranted.
Almost all the juvenile detainees in this particular detention center in South Korea had at least one psychiatric disorder and a substantial proportion of detainees had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of SUD was 57.8%, that of major depression was 17.3%, and that of DBDs was 71.7%. These findings highlight the need to diagnose and intervene in psychiatric disorders and comorbidities in the juvenile detention system, especially when they concern alcohol use disorder plus DBDs. For further research, we suggest prospective studies with large sample sizes to determine the impact of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities on the long-term outcomes of detainees, especially in adulthood.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
International Classification of Diseases
substance use disorder
oppositional defiant disorder
Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview
BS, BNK, SBH and DWL were responsible for study concept and design. JYC, JYC, YRO and MY contributed to the acquisition of data. BS, JIK and BSC were involved in the interpretation of the data. JIK was responsible for drafting the manuscript, and all authors were involved in critical revisions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Availability of data and materials
The data set supporting the conclusions of this article is available by contact with the corresponding author.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board of Sanggye Paik Hospital. Informed consent was obtained from all participants and guardians (in case of participants under the age of 18) prior to enrollment to the study. This study was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.
This study was supported by a grant from the Korean Mental Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HM15C1040). The funding source had no role in the study’s design, collection, analysis, interpretation of the data, the writing of the manuscript, or decision in submission of the paper for publication.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Ulzen TPM, Hamilton H. The nature and characteristics of psychiatric comorbidity in incarcerated adolescents. Can J Psychiatry. 1998;43(1):57–63.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Teplin LA, Abram KM, McClelland GM, Dulcan MK, Mericle AA. Psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59(12):1133–43. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.59.12.1133.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Abram KM, Teplin LA, McClelland GM, Dulcan MK. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(11):1097–108. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.11.1097.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Vreugdenhil C, Doreleijers TAH, Vermeiren R, Wouters LFJM, Van den Brink W. Psychiatric disorders in a representative sample of incarcerated boys in the Netherlands. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43(1):97–104. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000096371.43887.21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colins O, Vermeiren R, Vreugdenhil C, van den Brink W, Doreleijers T, Broekaert E. Psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents: a systematic literature review. Can J Psychiatry. 2010;55(4):225–63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Harzke AJ, Baillargeon J, Baillargeon G, Henry J, Olvera RL, Torrealday O, et al. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the Texas juvenile correctional system. J Correct Health Care. 2012;18(2):143–57. doi:10.1177/1078345811436000.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Friedman RM, Katz-Leavy JW, Manderscheid RW, Sondheimer DL. Prevalence of serious emotional disturbance in children and adolescents. Washington: US Government Printing Office; 1996.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McReynolds LS, Wasserman GA, DeComo RE, John R, Keating JM, Nolen S. Psychiatric disorder in a juvenile assessment center. Crime Delinq. 2008;54(2):313–34. doi:10.1177/0011128707301629.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Steiner H, Silverman M, Karnik NS, Huemer J, Plattner B, Clark CE, et al. Psychopathology, trauma and delinquency: subtypes of aggression and their relevance for understanding young offenders. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2011;5:21. doi:10.1186/1753-2000-5-21.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- McManus M, Alessi NE, Grapentine WL, Brickman A. Psychiatric disturbances in serious delinquents. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1984;23(5):602–15.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haapsalo J, Hamalainen T. Childhood family problems and current psychiatric problems among young violent and property offenders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996;35(10):1394–401.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vermeiren R. Psychopathology and delinquency in adolescents: a descriptive and developmental perspective. Clin Psychol Rev. 2003;23(2):277–318.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou JS, Chen C, Wang XP, Cai WX, Zhang SM, Qiu CJ, et al. Psychiatric disorders in adolescent boys in detention: a preliminary prevalence and case–control study in two Chinese provinces. J Forensic Psychiatry Pschol. 2012;23(5–6):664–75. doi:10.1080/14789949.2012.727452.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aida SA, Aili HH, Manveen KS, Salwina WI, Subash KP, Ng CG, et al. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among juvenile offenders in Malaysian prisons and association with socio-demographic and personal factors. Int J Prison Health. 2014;10(2):132–43. doi:10.1108/IJPH-06-2013-0029.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park S. A study on relation between violent crimes juveniles and mental disorder disposition. Korean Police Stud Rev. 2009;8:3–42.Google Scholar
- Domalanta DD, Risser WL, Roberts RE, Risser JM. Prevalence of depression and other psychiatric disorders among incarcerated youths. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42(4):477–84. doi:10.1097/01.CHI.0000046819.95464.0B.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abram KM, Zwecker NA, Welty LJ, Hershfield JA, Dulcan MK, Teplin LA. Comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders in youth after detention: a prospective longitudinal study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(1):84–93. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1375.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Neighbors B, Kempton T, Forehand R. Cooccurrence of substance-abuse with conduct, anxiety, and depression disorders in juvenile delinquents. Addict Behav. 1992;17(4):379–86. doi:10.1016/0306-4603(92)90043-U.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vreugdenhil C, Van den Brink W, Wouters LFJM, Doreleijers TAH. Substance use, substance use disorders, and comorbidity patterns in a representative sample of incarcerated male Dutch adolescents. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2003;191(6):372–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Copur M, Turkcan A, Erdogmus M. Substance abuse, conduct disorder and crime: assessment in a juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;59(2):151–4. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01350.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vermeiren R, Schwab-Stone M, Ruchkin V, De Clippele A, Deboutte D. Predicting recidivism in delinquent adolescents from psychological and psychiatric assessment. Compr Psychiatry. 2002;43(2):142–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colins O, Vermeiren R, Vahl P, Markus M, Broekaert E, Doreleijers T. Psychiatric disorder in detained male adolescents as risk factor for serious recidivism. Can J Psychiatry. 2011;56(1):44–50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McReynolds LS, Schwalbe CS, Wasserman GA. The contribution of psychiatric disorder to juvenile recidivism. Crim Justice Behav. 2010;37(2):204–16. doi:10.1177/0093854809354961.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Plattner B, Steiner H, The SS, Kraemer HC, Bauer SM, Kindler J, et al. Sex-specific predictors of criminal recidivism in a representative sample of incarcerated youth. Compr Psychiatry. 2009;50(5):400–7. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.09.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wierson M, Forehand R. Predicting recidivism in juvenile delinquents: the role of mental health diagnoses and the qualification of conclusions by race. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33(1):63–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nelson SE, Belkin K, LaPlante DA, Bosworth L, Shaffer HJ. A prospective study of psychiatric comorbidity and recidivism among repeat DUI offenders. Arch Sci Psychol. 2015;3(1):8–17.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(Suppl 20):22–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lecrubier Y, Sheehan DV, Weiller E, Amorim P, Bonora I, Sheehan KH, et al. The Mini International Interview (MINI): a short diagnostic structured interview: reliability and validity according to the CIDI. Eur Psychiatry. 1997;12(5):224–31.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Black DW, Arndt S, Hale N, Rogerson R. Use of the mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI) as a screening tool in prisons: results of a preliminary study. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2004;32(2):158–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marzano L, Faze S, Rivlin A, Hawton K. Psychiatric disorders in women prisoners who have engaged in near-lethal self-harm: case control study. Brit J Psychiatry. 2010;197(3):219–26. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.075424.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoo S, Kim Y, Noh J, Oh K, Kim C, Namkoong K, et al. Validity of Korean version of the mini interational neuropsychiatric interview. Anxiety Mood. 2006;2:50–5.Google Scholar
- Roberts RE, Attkisson CC, Rosenblatt A. Prevalence of psychopathology among children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155(6):715–25. doi:10.1176/ajp.155.6.715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turner RJ, Gil AG. Psychiatric and substance use disorders in South Florida: racial/ethnic and gender contrasts in a young adult cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59(1):43–50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haberstick BC, Young SE, Zeiger JS, Lessem JM, Hewitt JK, Hopfer CJ. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol and cannabis use disorders in the United States: results from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;136:158–61.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Polanczyk GV, Salum GA, Sugaya LS, Caye A, Rohde LA. Annual research review: a meta-analysis of the worldwide prevlence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015;56(3):345–65.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madruga CS, Laranjeira R, Caetano R, Pinsky I, Zaleski M, Ferri CP. Use of licit and illicit substances among adolescents in Brazil—a national survey. Addict Behav. 2012;37(10):1171–5. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.05.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park S, Kim Y. Prevalence, correlates, and associated psychological problems of substance use in Korean adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:79.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Copeland J, Rooke S, Swift W. Changes in cannabis use among young people: impact on mental health. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013;26(4):325–9. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e328361eae5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grant BF, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Chou SP, Dufour MC, Compton W, et al. Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(8):807–16. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.8.807.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peters RH, Wexler HK, Lurigio AJ. Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders in the criminal justice system: a new frontier of clinical practice and research. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2015;38(1):1–6. doi:10.1037/prj0000135.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goodwin DW, Schulsinger F, Hermansen L, Guze SB, Winokur G. Alcholism and the hyperactive child syndrome. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1975;160:349–53.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fleming CB, Mason WA, Mazza JJ, Abbott RD, Catalano RF. Latent growth modeling of the relationship between depressive symptoms and substance use during adolescence. Psychol Addict Behav. 2008;22(2):186–97.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morris RE, Harrison EA, Knox GW, Tromanhauser E, Marquis DK, Watts LL. Health risk behavioral survey from 39 juvenile correction facilities in the United States. J Adolesc Health. 1995;17:334–44.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Riggs PD, Baker S, Mikulich SK, Young SE, Crowley TJ. Depression in substance-dependent delinquents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34:764–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cottle CC, Lee RJ, Heilbrun K. The prediction of criminal recidivism in juveniles: a meta-analysis. Crim Justice Behav. 2001;28(3):367–94.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grieger L, Hosser D. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder does not predict criminal recidivism in young adult offenders: results from a prospective study. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2012;35(1):27–34.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohn M, van Domburgh L, Vermeiren R, Geluk C, Doreleijers T. Externalizing psychopathology and persistence of offending in childhood first-time arrestees. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;21:243–51.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Popma A, Raine A. Will future forensic assessment be neurobiologic? Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2006;15(2):429–44.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Penn JV, Thomas C. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of youth juvenile detention and correction facilities. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44(10):1085–9849.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Glaser J, Greifenger R. Correctional health care: a public health opportunity. Ann Intern Med. 2006;29:355–60.Google Scholar