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Table 1 Summary of differences found between original english (UK) SDQ and Chinese translation

From: Chinese translation of strengths and difficulties questionnaire requires urgent review before field trials for validity and reliability

  Major Differences and Concerns Affected Items/Questions & Examples Implications/ Suggestions
1 Chinese grammar/flow and wrongly written Chinese characters Items 2, 7, 12 & 23 in Parent/Teacher version Items 2, 12, 14, 17 & 23 in Student version Question 1 to 4 of the impact supplement in all three versions Two wrongly written Chinese characters (Item 15 in Student version and Question 4 in impact supplement, Parent/Teacher versions) Can be improved and rephrased to a more comprehensible language and more easily understood by a lay audience
2 Deviation of translated word Items 4, 7, 9, 12 & 17 in Parent/Teacher version* Items 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 20 & 25 in Student version* Question 1, 3 & 4 of the impact supplement in all three versions* Introductory paragraph of the Student version* These words need to be reviewed and matching the original English version
3 Translated word that is "somewhat different" The answers to the 25 items, "true" Items 3, 5, 6, 8, 13, 24 & 25 in Parent/Teacher version Items 6, 18 & 23 in Student version Question 1 of the impact supplement in all three versions These words require further consideration and the significance of the differences is unclear.
4 Addition of auxiliary verbs ("will", "can" and "very") Items 16, 21 & 22 in Parent version Items 16 & 21 in Teacher version Items 16, 17, 21, 22 & 24 in Student version The significance of these verbs is unclear, ideally they should be removed
5 Age-unspecific versions The English versions are divided into different age groups, with some differences in wording. E.g., "often argumentative with adults" in the 3–4 years old group is represented by "often lies or cheats" in the 4–16 years old group. Current Chinese SDQ does not observe these differences because one version is used for all age groups. In this example, the item concerned was translated as "often lies or cheats" only.
  1. * For examples, instead of "fights", it was translated as "quarrel" and "argue"; instead of "upset", "unwell" and "sad" were used. "I have one good friend or more", was translated as "I have one or a few good friends"; and "do the difficulties upset or distress your child?" became "are these difficulties perplexing/puzzling/disturbing you?"
  2. "Not True", "Somewhat True" and "Certainly True" – the answers to the 25 items, "true" was translated as "tallying/accord or keeping with"
  3. For examples "often seems worried" was translated as "often exhibit/display sign of anxiety"; "tearful" was translated as "crying".