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Table 2 Neighborhood quality, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors conduct disorder (CD) vs. no psychiatric disorder (NC)

From: Conduct disorder in girls: neighborhoods, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors

Social Context Domains CD (n = 52) NC (n = 41) Statistic p ES1 Overall Group Effect p
  Mean (SD) or Percentage     
Neighborhood Quality       0.206
   % Vacant houses 10.31 (94.83) 8.50 (5.00) 1.77 0.080 0.37  
   % Adults < H.S.2 education 82.83 (7.19) 84.85 (7.44) -1.32 0.190 -0.28  
   % Unemployed adults 59.58 (5.72) 60.70 (5.98) -0.92 0.359 -0.19  
   % Families in poverty 13.04 (7.96) 9.25 (6.41) 2.48 0.015 0.52  
   % Single mothers 9.38 (4.53) 7.50 (4.36) 2.01 0.047 0.42  
Family Characteristics       0.001
   Hollingshead score 48.13 (16.90) 37.22 (16.10) 3.16 0.002 0.66  
   Maternal age at girl's birth 23.84 (4.43) 27.10 (5.56) -3.15 0.002 -0.66  
   Marrieda 31 49   0.090 0.42  
   Parental ASB3,a 69 27   < 0.0001 1.00  
   Parental depressiona 21 22   1.000 -0.03  
   Parent SUD4,a 35 27   0.502 0.20  
Parenting Scores       < 0.0001
   Family activities – P5 8.55 (4.50) 12.46 (3.96) -4.08 < 0.0001 -0.92  
   Positive discipline – P 5.12 (1.71) 5.12 (1.79) 0.02 0.987 0.00  
   Negative discipline – P 14.35 (3.70) 11.36 (3.65) 3.75 0.0002 0.81  
   Consistency – P 4.79 (1.24) 5.31 (0.84) -2.28 0.023 -0.48  
   Supervision – P 15.89 (3.29) 17.31 (2.57) -2.08 0.040 -0.47  
   Family activities – Y6 7.16 (3.54) 10.08 (3.45) -3.99 0.0001 -0.83  
   Positive discipline – Y 4.33 (2.15) 5.48 (2.12) -2.57 0.012 -0.54  
   Negative discipline – Y 15.10 (4.62) 11.68 (4.20) 3.69 0.0004 0.77  
   Consistency – Y 3.86 (1.36) 4.65 (1.86) -2.37 0.020 -0.49  
   Supervision – Y 12.65 (4.41) 15.15 (3.63) -2.93 0.004 -0.61  
  1. 1 Effect size
  2. 2 High school
  3. 3 CD or Antisocial Personality Disorder
  4. 4 Substance Use Disorder
  5. 5 Parent report
  6. 6 Youth report
  7. a Fisher's Exact Test used