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Table 1 Age-dependent factors that influence the pharmacokinetics in children and adolescents

From: Drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry for improved efficacy and safety of psychopharmacotherapy

Pharmacokinetic parameter Influencing factors
Absorption Gastrointestinal function (for example gastric emptying and intestinal motility; hydrochloric acid production, bile acid secretion, intestinal and body length)
Distribution Body composition (for example extra-cellular and total-body water space, volume of distribution, changes in the composition and amount of circulating plasma proteins, body fat) Regional blood flow Organ perfusion Permeability of cell membranes Acid-base balance Passive diffusion of drugs into the central nervous system
Metabolism Metabolic capacity (for example liver size, activity of drug-metabolising phase I and II enzymes such as P-450 cytochromes and glucuronosyltransferase)
Excretion Renal function
  1. (modified according to [21, 42]).