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Table 4 Means and standard deviations of outcome variables, by martial arts group, third to fifth grade sample (n = 4,896)

From: Martial arts as a mental health intervention for children? Evidence from the ECLS-K

Group Grade 3 Behavior:
mean (sd)
Grade 5 Behavior
mean (sd)
N for Group
Martial arts in 3, not 5 3.07 (0.52) 3.12 (0.53) 328
Martial arts in 5, not 3 3.03 (0.58) 3.11 (0.58) 323
Martial arts both 3 and 5 3.00 (0.65) 3.14 (0.38) 24
Martial arts Neither 3.15 (0.53) 3.18 (0.51) 4221