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Table 2 Percentage of respondents reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (N = 9,819)

From: Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

  Male n = 4,968 p-valuea Female n = 4,851 p-valuea Total N = 9,819 p-valuea
  %   %   %  
Self-reported past-year drunkenness b 9.4   5.0   7.2  
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences       
Frequency with which family did not have enough food before respondent was 10 years       
   Very often 10.7 * 7.0 * 8.9 **
   Somewhat often 10.8   5.5   8.1  
   Not often at all/Never 8.6   4.4   6.5  
Did respondent live in a household with a problem drinker before age 10 years       
   No 7.5 ** 3.4 ** 5.5 **
   Yes 17.8   11.1   14.3  
Was respondent physically abused before age 10 years       
   No 8.4 ** 4.0 ** 6.2 **
   Yes 13.5   9.9   12.0  
Was respondent coerced into first sex before age 18 years       
   No 9.3   4.7 ** 7.1 *
   Yes 12.6   9.5   10.2  
Sociodemographic characteristics       
Importance of religion in life       
   Very important 9.2   5.0   7.1  
   Somewhat important 11.5   4.8   8.2  
   Not important/no religion 7.9   5.3   6.7  
Schooling status       
   In school 7.7 ** 4.0 ** 6.0 **
   Out of school 12.6   6.3   9.2  
Sex of household head       
   Male 9.2   4.7   7.0  
   Female 9.9   5.8   7.7  
Living arrangements       
   Both parents 8.2 ** 4.6   6.5  
   Mother only 10.6   5.2   8.0  
   Father only 8.3   5.9   7.3  
   Neither parent 11.4   5.2   7.8  
Area of residence       
   Urban 11.2 * 4.1   7.4  
   Rural 8.8   5.3   7.1  
Marital status       
   Never married 9.1 ** 4.7 * 7.0 **
   Ever married 31.8   7.4   10.1  
Country of residence       
   Burkina Faso 5.3 ** 3.1 ** 4.3 **
   Ghana 11.3   6.5   8.9  
   Malawi 7.6   1.9   4.9  
   Uganda 14.2   8.5   11.4  
  1. Sample sizes are weighted
  2. ap-values show the levels of significance of the association between each socio-demographic variable and self-reported past-year drunkenness by gender and for the total sample (e.g. 8% of in-school males report drunkenness while 13% of out-of school males do so. These proportions are statistically significantly different)
  3. bGender difference is statistically significant at the .05 level of significance
  4. *p < .05; ** p < .01