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Table 2 Odds ratios for family referrals, with 95% confidence interval (CI). N = 2054

From: Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral

  Model I
Empty model
Model II Model III Model IV
Fixed effects     
Individual-level variables     
Ethnicity     
   Swedish   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Nordic countries (other than Sweden)   1.15 (0.56-2.39) 1.05 (0.48-.2.26) 1.23 (0.58-2.57)
   Other European countries   0.50 (0.30-0.84)* 0.45 (0.26-0.78)** 0.53 (0.31-0.92)*
   Asia   0.67 (0.44-1.02) 0.69 (0.47-1.03) 0.88 (0.59-1.33)
   South America   1.06 (0.53-2.11) 0.94 (0.47-1.87) 1.17 (0.59-2.34)
   Africa   0.28 (0.14-0.60)** 0.30 (0.14-0.65)** 0.35 (0.17-0.72)**
Gender     
   Girl    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Boy    0.91 (0.73-1.14) 0.95 (0.76-1.20)
Age    0.78*** 0.78***
Family structure     
   Living with both parents    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Not living with both parents    0.86 (0.67-1.11) 0.91 (0.71-1.17)
Neighbourhood-level variable     
Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation     0.68 (0.62-0.76)***
Random effects     
Between-neighbourhood variance (SE)1 0.266 (0.515) *** 0.205 (0.452) *** 0.173 (0.416)*** 0.007 (0.084)
ICC (%) 7.5 5.9 5.0 0.2
Explained variance (%) - 21.3 33.3 97.3
  1. ***p < .001, **p < .01, *p < .05. 1 Standard error.